Dictionary
pace (n.) (step) griths, sf. (gen. gridais).
pace (v.) (tread) trudan, sv. IV., *trimpan, sv. III.; (walk) hwairban, sv. III., hwarbon, wv. 2., skewjan, wv. 1.; (walk, go) gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans.
pacify (tame) ga-tamjan, wv. 1.; (subjugate) uf-hnaiwjan, wv. 1.; (calm) *ana-qaljan, wv. 1.; (calm, assage) •linthjan, wv. 1.
pact trausti, sn.
paddock (yard, pen for animals) garda, wm.
page (manuscript, parchment) maimbrana, wm.
pain (n.) (hurt, physical or mental) sair, sn.; (anguish, agony) aglo, wf. - "she does not remember the pain" ni gaman thizos aglons; (suffering) wunns, sf.; (suffering, agony, endurance) thulains, sf.; "agonies, Christ's passion" thulaineis, sf.pl.; "to overburden, cause pain" ana-kaurjan, wv. 1.
pain (v.) (sadden, grieve) *trigan, sv. V.; (agrieve) gaurjan, wv. 1.; (irritate) us-agljan, wv. 1.; (torment) balwjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (agitate) drobjan, wv. 1.; (oppress as troubles) ana-praggan, sv. VII.; (burden, oppress) kaurjan, wv. 1.; (weigh down) af-hlathan, sv. VI.; (hinder, irk) marzjan, wv. 1.
pair (n.) ga-juk, sn.; "pair of shoes" ga-skohi, sn.
palace (kingdom, palace) thiudan-gardi, sf.
palate (gum, palate) •goma, wm.
pale (adj.) (pale, pale yellowish-grey) •falws.
palm (of hand) lofa, wm.
palm-tree peika-bagms, sm.
pangs (physical or mental pain) sair, sn.; (suffering) wunns, sf.; (suffering, agony, endurance) thulains, sf.; (agonies) thulaineis, sf.pl.; "undergo pangs of childbirth" fitan, sv. V.; "feel pangs of lust" in-tundnan, wv. 4.
paper (manuscript, parchment) maimbrana, wm.
parable ga-juko, wf.; "in the form of a parable, allegorically" alja-leikoths, in ga-jukom, in fri-sahtai.
paradise waggs, sm.
paralytic person us-litha, wm.
parched (dry, withered up) thaursus; "become parched/shrivelled" thairsan, sv. III., ga-thairsan, sv. III., thaursnan, ga-thaursnan, wv. 4.
parchment maimbrana, wm.
pardon (n.) af-lets, sm., af-lageins, sf.
pardon (v.) af-letan, sv. VII. +dat. of person, +acc. of misdeed.
parents berusjos, sm.pl., fadrein (sn. but treated as m.pl.) - "and his parents said" thai fadrein is jah qethun.
park (meadow, paradise) waggs, sm.
part (n.) (share, fragment) dails, sf.; (fragment) ga-bruka, sf.; (share) hlauts, sm.; "in part, partly" suman, bi sumata; (half, side) halba, sf.; (region, side) fera, sf.
part (v.) (part from) twis-standan, sv. VI.; (TRANS., INTR., separate, divide, depart) skaidan, sv. VII. +dat. or +acc. - "let no man put asunder" manna thamma ni skaidai; "let not the wife part from her husband" qenai fairra abin ni skaidan; "to part/divide a man from/against his father" skaidan mannan withra attan; (depart) skaidan sik, sv. VII.; (INTR.) "part, separate" ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.
partake of ga-brukjan, wv. 1. +gen. - bruhta, bruhts; fair-aihan, (irreg. pp. Commonest forms: aih, aigum, aihuth, aigun, aihta, aigands, 'g' in pres. subjunctive. But 'h' and 'g' fluctuate); "eat of" matjan, wv. 1. +gen; "drink of" drigkan, sv. III. +gen.
partaker ga-daila, wm.
parted, to become ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.
partiality (bias, favouritism) wilja-halthei, wf.; (liking) leikains, sf.
partially suman, us dailai.
participant (in community, member) ga-mainja, wm.; (partaker, sharer, participant, partner) ga-daila, wm.
particle (fragment) ga-bruka, sf.; (crumb) drauhsna, sf.; (small splinter) gramst, ?sn.
particoloured filu-faihs.
particular *us-sinths.
particularly (specifically) this-hun, us-sindo; (greatly, very much) ufarassau.
partisan (adj.) *wilja-halths.
partition (wall) mith-gardi-waddjus, sf.
partly suman, bi sumata, us dailai; "partly...partly" sumanuh than...sumanuh than.
partner (comrade, colleague) ga-hlaiba, *ga-salja, wm., ga-man, sn.; (comrade, companion on journey) ga-sinthja, ga-sintha, wm.; (partner in something, partaker) ga-daila, wm.; (member, participant) ga-mainja, wm.; (FELLOW member, etc.) *MITH-ga-mainja, wm., etc.; (wife) qens, sf., qino, wf.; (husband) manna, wm.
party (n.) (banquet, feast) dauhts, sf.; (banquet, revelry) ga-baur, sm.
party (v.) bi-wisan, sv. V.
pass (PASS BY, go past) faur-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; (precede, OVERTAKE, go ahead of) faur-bi-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; (overtake, rush on ahead, preceed) faur-sniwan, faur-bi-sniwan, bi-sniwan faur, sv. V. +acc.; (RUN PAST) bi-thragjan, wv. 1.; "running on ahead" bithragjands faur; (WANDER, walk, pass by) hwarbon, wv. 2.; (VANISH/PASS AWAY, go away, come/go out) us-leithan, sv. I.; "PASS OVER" ufar-leithan, sv. I.; "PASS ON" (knowledge) ana-filhan, sv. III. - "to" +dat.
passage *fartho, wf.; (voyage) #fara, sf.; (journey) wratodus, sm.; (way, journey) wigs, sm.; (quote, expression, spoken passage in book/scripture) thata qithano, wn.
passer-by faur-gaggands, wm.
passing (adj.) (temporary, fickle, changeable) hweila-hwairbs; (perishable) riurs (i-stem); (transient, destructable) ga-taurnands.
passion (sexual) gairuni, sn.; (sexual longing) winno, wf., winna, sf.; (zeal/willingness, envy) aljan, sn.; (anger) moths, sm. (gen. modis); (agony, suffering, the Passion) thulains, sf., thulaineis, sf.pl.; "boil, bubble over, be passionate about" wulan, sv. IV.; "burn up inside with passion" in-tundnan, wv. 4.
Passover (Also: Easter) paska, sf. (Or neuter indeclinable).
past "THE PAST" thata !faura-wairtho, wn. (waurthano, wn. = event that have happened); "in the past, formerly" simle; "already, in the past" ju; "hitherto" (but not necessarily finished) und hita, und hita nu; "of the past, old, outdated" fairneis; "GO PAST, walk by" faur-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; (go past/ahead, overtake) faur-bi-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; "run past" bi-thragjan, wv. 1.; "run past in front" bi-thragjan faur, wv. 1.
pasture winja, sf.
patch (n.) (of cloth) fana, wm., plats, sm.
paternity (lineage) fadreins, sf.; fadrein, sn. (Used as if it was a masculine plural, meaning "parents", eg.: thai fadrein).
path gagg, sn., staiga, sf., wigs, sm.; (tracks, trail, footsteps, path) laists, sm. (i-stem); (rough track) us-drusts (lit. 'a falling away'), sf.
pathetic (miserable, wretched, sad) wainahs.
patience lagga-modei, wf., us-beisnei, wf., us-beisns, sf., stiwiti, sn., #tulds, sf.; (tolerance) us-thulains, sf.; (patience, suffering, tolerance) thulains, sf.
patient (adj.) *lagga-moths (gen. -modis), us-beisneigs.
pauper tharba, wm.
pause (n.) ga-hweilains, sf.
pause (v.) hweilan, ga-hweilan, wv. 3.
paw •pauta, sf.
pay (n.) laun, sn., (soldier's pay) anno, wf.; (worker's pay) *asno, wf.
pay (v.) *gildan, fra-gildan, us-gildan, sv. III.; (pay up, repay, show) us-giban, sv. V.; "pay fine/ransom for, redeem" *us-lunjan, wv. 1.; "pay attention to" mundon, wv. 2. +acc.
payment (reward, payment, wage) laun, anda-launi, sn., mizdo, wf.; "reward of victory" sigis-laun.; "payment of fine/ransom" us-luneins, sf.
peace ga-wairthi, sn.; (tranquility, rest) rimis, sn. (gen. rimisis); (calm, calming down) ana-qal, sn.; (respite, rest, relaxation) ga-hweilains, sf.; (peace from war) #frithus, sm.; "make peace, reconcile" ga-frithon, wv. 2. +acc. - "to/with" +dat.; "make one's peace with, become reconciled with" ga-sibjon, wv. 2. +dat.
peaceable ga-wairtheigs; (meek, gentle, kindly) qairrus.
peaceful ga-wairtheigs, sutis (i-stem).
peak (hilltop) auhmisto, wn.; (top, tip) *peika, sf.; (mountain) fairguni, sf., *bairgs, sm.; "the highest height" hauhisti, sn.
pearl marikreitus, sm.
pelt (n.) (skin, hide) fill, sn.; (hair, fur) tagl, sn.
pelt (v.) wairpan, sv. III. +dat. or +acc.; "pelt with stones" stainam wairpan.
pen (n.) (fold for animals) garda, wm.
penetrate thairh-leithan, sv. I., thairh-gaggan, sv. VII. - thairh-iddja, thairh-gaggans; (burrow into) •smiugan, sv. II.
penis !tairs, sm. (gen. !tairsis) (by analogy with OE teors).
penny aiz, sn., assarjus, skatts, kintus, sm., •kinta, wm.
penstroke writs, striks, sm. (i-stem).
Pentecost paintekuste, sf.
people mans, *liudeis, m.pl.; (all people, people in general) ala-mans, m.pl.; (a people, nation, tribe) thiuda, sf.; (a people, a nation at arms) #fulk, sn.; (kin) kuni, sn., knoths, sf. (gen. knodais); (the peoples, tribes, Gentiles) thiudos, sf.pl.; (humanity) mana-seths, sf. (gen. mana-sedais), manniskodus, sm.
per thairh.
perceive gaumjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (VISUALLY) ga-saihwan, sv. V.; (UNDERSTAND) frathjan, sv. VI. +dat.; (BECOME AWARE OF, know) uf-kunnan, irreg. (present as wv. 3., pret. almost always strong: uf-kuntha, but one example each of weak pret. and past part.: uf-kunnaida, uf-kunnaidai).
perception (viewpoint, understanding, attitude) frathi, sn.; (attention) *gauma, sf.
perch (n.) (type of fish) barsisks, sm.; (bird's perch/nest, seat) sitls, sm.
perchance (maybe) waitei; (maybe, quite possibly, probably) aufto; "lest perchance" ibai aufto.
perdition (loss, damnation) fra-lusts, sf.
perfect (adj.) fulla-tojis, fulla-wita, w.adj.; (immaculate) un-wamms; (righteous, impeccable) us-waurhts.
perfect (v.) (finish, perfect, perform, lead up/out, drive forth) us-tiuhan, sv. II.; (finish, perfect) us-waurkjan, wv. 1. - us-waurhta, us-waurhts.
perfection (completion, fulfilment) us-tauhts, sf.; (rectitude) us-waurhts, sf.
perfectly (in every respect) bi all, in allamma; (utterly) all-andjo; (truly) bi sunjai, mith sunjai, sunjaba; (fully, totally) fulla-; (perfectly accurately/clearly) glaggwo - "you know perfectly well" glaggwo wituth.
perforation (hole) thairko, wn.
perform taujan, ga-taujan, waurkjan, ga-waurkjan, wv. 1. - waurhta, waurhts; (lead out/up, take up, drive forth, finish, perfect, perform) us-tiuhan, sv. II.; "they had seen the wonders he performed for the sick" gasehwun taiknins thozei gatawida bi siukaim.
perfume aromata, n.pl.
pergola (shade, arbour, covered walkway, booth, hut) •laubjo, wf. (cf. MnE lobby, OHG louppea/lauba, NHG laube, It loggia, Late L laubia/lobium).
perhaps (perhaps) aufto, waitei (both +indicative); "it may/could be" mag wesi; (rhetorical or emphatic: maybe, maybe even/actually) ibai aufto +indicative (cf. J 7,26 & 2Cor 1,17); "lest, so as not to, lest perhaps" ibai aufto +subjunctive; (then, in that case, then perhaps" thau.
peril bi-reikei, sleithei, wf.; "in peril" bi-reikeis.
perilous (fierce, dangerous) sleideis.
period (aeon, vast period, age, eternity) aiws, sm. (acc.pl. aiwins, dat.pl. aiwam); (era, age, a period in history) era, alds, sf.; (shorter period of time, a while) •stunda, sf.; (hour, a while) hweila, sf. - "for a period/while" du hweilai; "for a long period/time" laggai hweilai.
perish fra-lusnan, fra-qistnan, ga-dauthnan, wv. 4.; "destroy, corrode, cause to perish" riurjan, wv. 1.
perishable riurs (i-stem).
perjure "purjure oneself" ga-liug weitwodjan, wv. 1., *ufar-swaran, sv. VI.
perjurer (oath-breaker) ufar-swara, wm.
permit (v.) letan ei +subj., fra-letan, sv. VII. +acc. or +dat. +inf., us-laubjan, wv. 1. (dat. for person).
permitted "it is permitted [to]" bi-nah, skuld ist +inf.
pernicious (harmful) skathuls; (dangerous, dire) sleideis.
perpetual (eternal) aiweins; (continual, ceaseless) un-sweibands, *un-hweils.
perpetually (incessantly) un-hweilo; (regular, daily) sinteino.
perpetuity ajuk-duths, sf. (gen. -duthais); "in perpetuity" in aiwins, du aiwa, du aiwam; (ever after, for ever more) fram-wigis.
perplex (confuse, bewitch) af-hugjan, wv. 1.
persecute wrikan, sv. V., wrakjan, wv. 1.
persecution wraka, wrakja, sf., wrekei, wf.
persecutor wraks, sm.
persevere (endure to the end) us-aiwjan, wv. 1.; (stick to task/practise/habit(not necessarily a good one...)) haftjan, wv. 1. +dat. - "persist with prayer" bidai haftjan.
persist (continue, remain) thairh-wisan, fram-wairthis wisan, sv. V.; (remain, abide, stay (in a place/state, in existence)) wisan, ga-wisan, sv. V.; (persevere) us-aiwjan, wv. 1.; (stick to task/practise, etc.) haftjan, wv. 1. +dat. - "persist with prayer" bidai haftjan; (remain in a condition or place, come to a halt, stay, abide, hold fast) ga-standan, sv. VI.
person manna, wm.; (someone, a certain person) ains, sums, sm.; (presence, face) and-wairthi, sn.
persuade ga-hwatjan, wv. 1.
persuasion ga-kunths, sf.
perturb drobjan, wv. 1.; (surprise, shock) us-gaisjan, us-agjan, wv. 1.; (agitate, move/disturb emotionally) in-wagjan, wv. 1.; (disturb/shake physically) wagjan, wv. 1.; (shake, disturb, make unsteady) af-swaggwjan, wv. 1.; (dumbfound) af-slauthjan, wv. 1.; (bewitch, confuse) af-hugjan, wv. 1.; (be perturbed, upset) drobnan, wv. 4.; (be shocked out of one'd wits) us-geisnan, wv. 4.; (be dumbfounded) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1.
perverse in-winds.
perversity in-winditha, sf.
pervert (n.) (coward, pervert) #arga, wm.
pervert (v.) in-wandjan, wv. 1.
perverted in-winds; (cowardly, depraved) #args.
pest #skathaliggs.
pharoah farao, m. irreg. (dat. faraoni).
Phoenician (female) Fyniska, sf.; (male) Fynikisks, sm.
physical (of the flesh) leikeins; (not spiritual) airtha-kunds.
physician lekeis, sn.
pick (pluck) •harbisjan, wv. 1.; (choose) ga-waljan, wv. 1.; (pick out, test, prove) us-kiusan, sv. II. +acc.
picture (n.) (image) man-leika, wm.; (literal image, illustration, example) fri-sahts, sf.; (drawing) *taikneins, sf.; (sign) bandwa, sf., bandwo, wf.; (sign, wonder, token) taikns, sf.; (exhibit, evidence, display) taikn, sn.
picture (v.) (imagine) ahjan, wv. 1.; (depict, draw, engrave, fashion as image) ga-fri-sahtjan, wv. 1.
piece (part, share, fragment) dails, sf.; (fragment) ga-bruka, sf.; (share) hlauts, sm.; (piece of money, incompleteness, partnership) daila, sf.
pierce (go through) thairh-leithan, sv. I., thairh-gaggan, sv. VII. - thairh-iddja, thairh-gaggans; (burrow into) •smiugan, sv. II.; "a sword shall peirce your own heart" theina silbons saiwala thairhgaggith hairus.
piety ga-gudei, wf.
pig swein, sn.; (boar) •bairs, sm.; (sow) •sus, f. (cons.stem.)
pigeon ahaks, ?sf., dubo, wf.
pile together ga-dragan, sv, VI.
pile up ga-dragan, sv, VI., huhjan, wv. 1.
pilfer hlifan, sv. V., stilan, sv. IV.
pillage wilwan, dis-wilwan, sv. III.
pillar sauls, sf.
pillow waggari, sn.
pinch (v.) (handle, crumple) at-snarpjan, wv. 1.; (steal) hlifan, sv. V., stilan, sv. IV., bi-niman, sv. IV.
pine (n.) (pine-tree) #tairwi, sn.
pine for gairnjan, wv. 1., +gen.
pine-tree #tairwi, sn.
pinnacle (of house) gibla, wm.; (hilltop, peak) auhumisto, wn.; (tip) *peika, sf.; (mountain) fairguni, sf., *bairgs, sm.; "the highest height" hauhisti, sn.
pious ga-guths (gen. ga-gudis), guda-faurhts.
piously ga-gudaba.
pipe (n.) (flute) *swigl, sn.; (tube, leg) •agkja, sf.; (tube (attested meaning: reed)) raus, sn. (gen. rausis).
pipe (v.) (play the pipe) swiglon, wv. 2.
piper swiglja, wm.
pique (anger) moths, sm. (gen. modis), thwairhei, wf.
piqued (angered, angry) modags, thwairhs.
pit (hole in earth) groba, sf.; (dale, ravine, trench, pit) dals, sm.; (abyss) af-grunditha, sf.
pitcher kas, sn.
pitfall hlamma, sf.
pity (n.) arma-hairtitha, ga-bleitheins, sf., armaio, wf.
pity (v.) arman, ga-arman, wv. 3, ga-bleithjan, wv. 1.; "feel pity, be moved to pity" in-feinan, wv. 4.; "take pity on" arman, wv. 3. +acc. - "have pity on me!" armai mik!
place (n.) staths, sm. (i-stem, gen. stadis); "in that place" ana thamma stada.
place (v.) satjan, ga-satjan, us-satjan, lagjan, ga-lagjan, at-lagjan, wv. 1.; "place your hand upon her" atlagei handu theina ana ija; (place around) bi-satjan, wv. 1.
plague (n.) slahs, sm. (i-stem).; (wound, plague) wundufni, sn.
plague (v.) (trouble, limit) ga-aggwjan; (irritate) us-agljan, wv. 1.; (bother, threaten) us-thriutan, sv. II. +dat., sv. II.; (torment) balwjan, wv. 1. +dat.
plain (n.) #auja, sf. (Jordanes: oium 'the Scythian steppe').
plainly bairhtaba.
plait (n.) flahto, wf.? (cf. ON flétta).
plait (v.) *flaihtan, us-windan, sv. III.
plaited (hair) in flahtom.
plan (n.) ga-rehsns, sf.; (plan, plot, consultation) ga-runi, sn.; (plot) bi-runains, sf.; (design, mystery) runa, sf. - "the teachers of the law rejected God's plan for them" witodafasteis fraqethun runa gudis ana sik.
plan (v.) (plot) *bi-runan, wv. 3.; "take councel to decide, discuss" runa niman bi +acc., sv. IV.; (intend) munan, wv. 3. - "for the high priests were planning then how to kill Lazarus too" munaidedunuth-than auk thai auhimustans gudjans, ei jah Lazaru usqemeina; (make provision for, take pains over) ga-redan, sv. VII. +acc.; "decide in advance" faura-ga-hugjan, wv. 1.; (decree, ordain) ga-raidjan, wv. 1.; (predestine, preordain) faura-ga-redan, sv. VII.; (agree) ga-qithan sis, mith-qithan, sv. V.
plank •thiljo, wf.
plant (n.) (grass, plant, vegetable, herb) gras, sn. (gen. grasis).
plant (v.) (plant, beget) satjan, wv. 1.; "transplant, shift" mith-satjan, wv. 1.; "plant stakes/posts" •stakkon, wv. 2.
plate (n.) (dish, table) mes, sn. (gen. mesis).
platter (dish, table) mes, sn. (gen. mesis).
play "play the pipe" swiglon, wv. 2.
plausibly (probably, possibly) aufto; (maybe) waitei.
plead bidjan us-daudo, sv. V.; (adjure, beseech) bi-swaran, sv. VI.
pleasant anda-nems (i-stem); (easy, carefree) azets; (sweet, pleasurable) wotheis; (of life: peaceful) sutis; (nice, gentle) •lintheis.
"please" "I ask/pray you" bidja thuk... (Polite requests often use subjunctive rather than imperative); "if you will" jabai wileis (When talking to one person); jabai wileits (two people); jabai wileith (more than two).
please (v.) leikan, ga-leikan, wv. 3.; "it pleases me, I like it" thata leikaith mis, in thamma galeikaida; Mk 1,11: "you in whom I am well pleased" in thuz-ei waila ga-leikaida; IN MARGINAL GLOSS: thuk-ei wilda; (please, try to please s-one, ingratiate oneself) samjan sis, wv. 1.; (satisfy with actions) *fahjan, fulla-fahjan, wv. 1.; (fill, satisfy with food) ga-sothjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person satisfied, dat. or gen. of thing they are satisfied with); "please, if you please, if you wish/will" jabai wileis.
pleasing (pleasant, acceptable) anda-nems (i-stem) - "very pleasing, quite acceptable" waila anda-nems; (easy, carefree) azets; (sweet, pleasurable) wotheis; (gentle, nice) •lintheis.
pleasurable *ga-baureis; (pleasant, acceptable) anda-nems (i-stem); (easy, carefree) azets; (sweet, pleasant) wotheis.
pleasure ga-baurjothus, sm.; (ease, comfort) azeti, sn.; (liking, pleasure, preference) leikains, sf. - "according to his pleasure / the pleasure of his will" bi leikainai wiljins seinis; "with pleasure" ga-baurjaba, latha-leiko, us lustum.
pleat (fold) •falda, sf.
pledge (n.) wadi, sn.
pledge (v.) ga-wadjon, wv. 2.
plenitude manag-duths, sf. (gen. -duthais).
plentiful (abundant, sufficient) ga-nohs; (many) manags; "be/become plentiful" managnan, wv. 4.
plenty (adj.) ga-nohs.
plenty (n.) ufarassus, sm.
pliant (tender, gentle) thlaqus.
plot (n.) (conspiracy) bi-runains, sf.; (plan, plot, consultation) ga-runi, sn.
plot (v.) *bi-runan, wv. 3.
plotting (n.) bi-runains, sf.
plough (n.) hoha, wm., •plogs, sm.
plough (v.) arjan, sv. VII. (Probably sv. VII. with -j- only on present, cf. OHG erian, iar, giaran).
ploy (plot, plotting) bi-runains, sf.; (trickery) us-wandi, sf.
pluck •harbisjan, wv. 1.; "pluck out" raupjan, wv. 1.; "pluck/gouge out" us-graban, sv. VI.
plume #thufa, sf.; (tuft, crest) •skuppa, sf.
plummet ga-driusan, sv. II.
plump *digrs.
plumpness digrei, wf.
plunder wilwan, dis-wilwan, sv. III.; (carry off) fra-wilwan, sv. III.
plundering (n.) (robbery) wulwa, sf.
plunge (v.) (fall) ga-driusan, sv. II.; (cause to fall) ga-drausjan, wv. 1.; (cause to plunge off) af-drausjan, wv. 1.
pocket •taska, sf.
pod •slaufa, sf.
point out (note, single out) ga-tarhjan, wv. 1.
point (n.) (POINT, MOMENT) stiks, sm.; "POINT IN TIME, a moment" stiks melis; "POINT OF VIEW" frathi, sn.; (SHARP POINT, PRICKLE, THORN" •stikils, sm.; (TIP, TAPERING POINT) *peika, sf.; (POINT IN SPACE, PLACE) staths (i-stem, gen. stadis); (PURPOSE, GOOD REASON) sautha, sf.; "there is NO POINT in fighting over words" waurdam weihan du ni waihtai daug; (GOAL, objective, target) mundrei, wf.; "POINT OF SPEAR" #gaida, sf., #uzds, sm.; "point/GABLE/PINNACLE of building" gibla, wm.
pointless halks; (useless) un-nutis (i-stem); "fruitless" akrana-laus; "to be pointless/useless" ni botjan waiht, wv. 1., ni waiht botos taujan, ni dugan, pp. - daug, dugum, dauhta.
pointlessly arwjo, sware.
poison (n.) in-gif, sn.
poisoner (magician, alchemist) lubja-leis, sm.
poke out (e.g. an eye) us-stiggan, sv. III.
polish •faurbjan, wv. 1.
polite airkns.
pollute (sully) bi-sauljan, wv. 1.; "become polluted" bi-saulnan, wv. 4.; (defile, participate, tell) ga-mainjan, ga-ga-mainjan, wv. 1. +dat.
pond swumfsl, sn.
ponder munan, wv. 3., miton, wv. 2., thagkjan, wv. 1. - thahta, thahts; "pondering in their minds on whether he might be the Christ" thagkjandam in hairtaim seinaim, niu sa wesi Xristus; "and the high priests pondered then how to kill Lazarus too" munaidedunuth-than auk thai uahimustans gudjans, ei jah Lazaru usqemeina.
pool swumfsl, sn.
poor tharba, ala-tharba, us-haista, w.adj., tharbs, thaurfts, un-leths (gen. *un-ledis); (poor, wretched, pathetic) arms; "poorest, most wretched" armosts; (wretched, pathetic, unhappy) wainahs - "poor me" wainahs ik!
poorly (ILL) siuks; "to be unwell" siukan, sv. II., ubil/ubilaba haban, wv. 3.; (be poorly in stomach, suffer indigestion) suqnan, wv. 4.; "to be sick, vomit" rupatjan, wv. 1.; "be poorly with fever" brinnon ana-habaida wisan, irreg.; (IMPERFECTLY, only partially) suman, us dailai.
porter (porter, door-keeper) daura-wards, sm., daura-warda, sf.; (bearer) •bairils, sm.
portico (colonnade) ubizwa, sf.; (shade, arbour, shelter, booth, covered walkway, booth, hut) •laubjo, wf. (cf. MnE lobby, NHG Laube, It loggia, Late L laubia/lobium).
portion (n.) dails, sf., hlauts, sm.
portion out (share out) dailjan, dis-dailjan, fra-dailjan, wv. 1.
possess (HAVE) haban, wv. 3.; (TAKE, HOLD) ga-haban, wv. 3.; (POSSESS/OWN) dis-niman, sv. IV.; (ACQUIRE) ga-staldan, sv. VII.; (OF SICKNESS, DEMONS: posses, seize, AFFLICT) ana-haban, wv. 3.; (of STRONG EMOTION, to GRIP/SEIZE) dis-sitan, sv. V., dis-haban, wv. 3. - "they were possessed by a great fear" agisa mikilamma dis-habaida wesun; "be possessed" un-hulthon haban, wv. 3.
possessed (mad) woths (gen. wodis); "possessed man" daimonareis, sm.; "someone possessed [with a devil]" ains un-hulthon habands; "to be possessed by fear/love" agisa/frijathwai dis-habaiths wisan.
possession (possessions, property) aigin, sn, aihts, sf., swes, sn.; (wealth, cattle) faihu, sn.; (land, farmlands) thaurp, sn.; (free estate, allodium) #alauths, sm. (gen. #alaudis); "get possession of" ga-aiginon, wv. 2.; "take possession of, take into safekeeping" *ga-freidjan, wv. 1.
possible (mighty, able, possible) mahteigs; "if it is possible" jabai mahteig sijai; "possible for [s-one]" mahteig fram +dat.; (passive: CAN BE, ABLE TO BE) mahts +inf. (declined past part.) "how is it possible for grown man to be born?" hwaiwa mahts ist manna altheis wisands gabairan?; THOUGH ONLY THE PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION IS ATTESTED, ANALOGY WITH skuld ist WOULD IMPLY AN UNDECLINED NEUTER ACTIVE "able to, possible for one to" maht ist +inf +dat. for person able - or maybe this function was fulfilled adequately with the verb "to be able" magan; "I can" mag; "we can" magum; "I could" mahta.
possibly (maybe) waitei; (maybe, quite possibly, probably) aufto; "lest possibly, lest by any chance" ibai aufto.
pot (clay) kas, sn.; (metal) katils, sm.; (basin, cauldron) %hwair, sm. (gen. %hwairis).
potency (might, power, strength, virtue, miracle, ability) mahts, sf.
potter kasja, wm.
pound (n.) pund, sn.; (pound, piece of money, participation, partnership/community, incompleteness) daila, sf.
pound (v.) (grind up) malan, sv. VI., •grindan, sv. III.; (crush, bruise) ga-malwjan, wv. 1.; (hit, punch) slahan, sv. VI.; (hit, push) stauran, sv. VII.
pour giutan, sv. II.; "be poured out" us-gutnan, wv. VI.; "pour a drink for" #skagkjan, wv. 1. (?dat. of person, acc. of drink).; (give to drink) dragkjan, ga-dragkjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person, dat. of drink).
poverty tharba, sf., un-ledi, sn.
poverty-stricken tharba, ala-tharba, us-haista, w.adj., un-leths (gen. *un-ledis); (poor, wretched, pathetic) arms.
powerfully (extremely, very) abraba.
power (authority) waldufni, sn.; "the power to forgive" waldufni afletan; (power, tyranny, violence) ana-mahts; (might, power, strength, virtue, miracle, ability) mahts, sf.; (power, strength) swinthei, wf.; (rule, power, kingdom) reiki, sn.; (might) #thruthi, sf. (gen. thruthjos); "rule, have power over" ga-waldan, sv. VII. +dat.; "according to one's power/ability" bi mahtai; "beyond one's power/ability" ufar maht.
powerful (mighty, able, possible) mahteigs; (extreme) abrs; (strong, healthy) swinths; (strong) #ramms; (big, great) mikils; (great) *airmans; (powerful, in authority) reikeis.
powerless (weak, infirm, unable, impossible) un-mahteigs; (weak) lasiws; (weak, powerless, beaten) *blauths (gen. blauthis).
pseudo (false, fake) ga-liuga-.
practically "practically not, hardly" *halis; "practically never" halis-aiw.
practice (n.) (exercise, training, mastery/perfection through training) us-throtheins, sf.; (custom) sidus, sm., bi-uhti, sn.
practise (v.) (drill, excercise) throthjan sik, wv. 1.; "exercise thyself unto godliness" throthei thuk silban du gagudein; (a custom, habit) sidon, wv. 2.; "practise till perfect, master through practice" us-throthjan, wv. 1.; "stick to, make a regular practise of prayer" bidai haftjan, wv. 1.
practiced (adj.) us-throhiths.
praetorium praitoriaun, irreg.
praise (n.) hazeins, hauheins, sf.
praise (v.) hauhjan, hazjan, mikiljan, wv. 1., waila qithan, sv. V.; (thank, acknowledge, confess) and-haitan, sv. VII. +dat.; (praise, bless) thiuthjan, wv. 1.
praiseworthy waila-mereis.
pray (pray, ask) bidjan, sv. V. "for (something)" gen., "for the sake of" bi +acc.; (beg) aihtron, wv. 2.
prayer bida, liteins, uf-bloteins, sf.
preach merjan, wv. 1.; (the Gospel) aiwaggeljan, wv. 1.; (good tidings) waila-merjan, wv. 1.
preaching mereins, sf.; (message preached) hauseins, sf.
precede (go ahead) faura-qiman, sv. IV., faur-rinnan, sv. III.; (go ahead, manage/preside) faura-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; "you will go on ahead of" fauragaggis faura +dat.; (PASS BY, go past) faur-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; (OVERTAKE, go ahead of) faur-bi-gaggan, sv. VII. - iddja, gaggans; (overtake, rush on ahead, preceed) faur-sniwan, faur-bi-sniwan, bi-sniwan faur, sv. V. +acc.; (RUN PAST) bi-thragjan, wv. 1.; "running on ahead" bithragjands faur.
preceding fairns.
precious (expensive) ga-laufs, filu-ga-laufs, (gen. ga-laubis).
precipitate (rash, brash) un-tila-malsks.
precise (exact/accurate, careful/thorough) *glaggwus; (accurate, correct) raihts; (correct, true) sunjis, sunjeins.
precisely (accurately) glaggwo - "you know quite well that..." glaggwo wituth thatei...; (meticulously: of search/narrative) glaggwuba, glaggwaba; (namely, actually, indeed) raihtis; (correctly) raihtaba; (indeed) jai.
precursor faur-rinnands, pres.part.
predestine faura-ga-redan, sv. VII.
predetermine (predestine, preordain) faura-ga-redan, sv. VII.
pre-eminence frumadei, wf.
prefer (deem better) faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.
prefered (dear) walisa, w.adj.
preference (liking) leikains, sf.
pregnant in-kiltho, w.adj., habandei, w.adj., qithu-hafts; "pregnant woman" qithu-hafto, wf.; "get pregnant" ganiman in kilthein, inkiltho wairthan; "pregnant with a son" inkiltho sunau.
prejudge faur-domjan, faura-ga-hugjan, wv. 1.
prejudice faur-domeins, sf.
prematurely faur mel.
premeditated (deliberate, premeditating) *faur-weis.
preordain faura-ga-redan, sv. VII.
preparation manwitha, sf.
prepare (make ready) manwjan, ga-manwjan, wv. 1.; (put into an approprate condition, sort out, prepare) ga-fahrjan, wv. 1.; (prepare oneself) skaftjan sik, wv. 1.; (work, do, perform, effect, prepare) ga-waurkjan, wv. 1. - waurhta, waurhts; (dress, get ready) •garwon, wv. 2.; "prepare in advance" faura-manwjan, wv. 1.
prepared ga-raiths (gen. ga-raidis), manwus; (adv.) "in readiness" manwuba.
prepuce faura-filli, sn.
presbyter papa, wm.
presbytery praizbytairei, wf.
prescribe (order, decree) ga-raidjan, wv. 1.; (advise, prescribe) ga-raginon, wv. 2.
presence and-wairthi, sn.; "in the p. of" in andwairthja (+gen.), at +dat.
present (adj.) (present day) nu (indecl.); (present in time or space) and-wairths; "to be present" in-wisan, and-wairths wisan, irreg.; "present with, in the presence of" at +dat.; "supervise, be present" faura-standan, sv. VI.
present (n.) "the present time" (so) nu, indeclinable f., so nu hweila, sf., thata and-wairtho, wn.; (gift) giba, sf., maithms, sm.
present (v.) at-satjan, faura-ga-satjan, faur-lagjan, wv. 1.; (proffer, offer) rahton, wv. 2.
presentation faur-lageins, sf.
preserve (keep safe) bairgan, sv. III. +dat. "from" faura +dat.; "both are preserved/saved, both survive" bajothum bairgada (impersonal passive, cf. ON e-m er borgit); (keep, maintain, preserve, keep safe) fastan, wv. 3.; (protect, help) hleibjan, wv. +dat.; (protect, shield, shelter) •skairmjan, wv. 1. (?dat., as in MHG); (keep safe, take into safekeeping) *ga-freidjan, wv. 1.; (save) nasjan, wv. I.; (save, heal) ga-nasjan, wv. 1.; "be saved, be healed, attain salvation" ga-nisan, sv. V.
press •thrukjan, wv. 1.; (press/crowd against) threihan, sv. I.; (fall, press against) driusan, sv. II.; (press, cram) •kramjan, wv. 1.; (pressure, oppress, crowd in on as troubles) ana-praggan, sv. VII.; (force) nauthjan, ana-nauthjan, baidjan, ga-baidjan, #anatjan, wv. 1.; (persuade, entice) ga-hwatjan, wv. 1.; (be pressing, urge, be urgent, be immanent) in-standan, sv. VI.
pressure (n.) •thruks, sm. (i-stem); (trouble, problem, hardship) threihsl, sn.
prestige (exaltedness) hauhitha, sf.; (honour) *swerei, wf., *sweritha, sf.; (boast, fame) hwoftuli, sf.; (fame) *merei, wf.; (renown, report, fame) meritha, sf.; "seek prestige/glory for one's self" hauhitha seina sokjan, wv. 1.; (importance, worthiness) wairthida, sf.; (prestige, insight, opinion, judgement) doms, sm.
prestigious (esteemed) swers; (worthy) wairths; (important, significant) wulthrs; (powerful, in authority) reikeis.
presume (suppose, imagine) ahjan, wv. 1.; (expect, suppose) ga-wenjan, wv. 1.; (presuppose, prejudge) faur-domjan, wv. 1.; (believe) munan, pp. - man, munum, munda; "presuming [he meant] physical birth from the womb" tho leikeinon us wambai munands gabaurth; (dare, be so presumptious as to) ana-nanthjan, wv. 1. +inf.
presuppose (prejudge) faur-domjan, wv. 1.; (expect, suppose) ga-wenjan, wv. 1.; (imagine, suppose) ahjan, wv. 1.
pretence (excuse) inilo, wf.
pretended (feigned) *liuts.
pretext (excuse) inilo, wf.; (opportunity, grounds) til, sn.; (ground for accusation) fairina, sf.; (goal, objective, target) mundrei, wf.; (thing, cause) waihts, sf. (usually, but acc.pl. waihts also found, Sk 2,c); (reason, purpose, point) sautha, sf.
pretty skauns (i-stem).
prevent (stop, hinder) latjan, wv. 1. (dat. + inf.); (forbid, block) warjan, wv. 1.; (thwart, restrict) ga-aggwjan, wv. 1.; (impede) ana-latjan, wv. 1.; (obstruct, irritate) marzjan, wv. 1.; "prevent oneself, hold back, avoid, refrain" ga-haban sik, wv. 3. - "from" af +dat.
previous "the last" fairna, w.adj.; (prior, first) fruma, w.adj.; "previous to" faur +acc., faura +dat.; "the day previous to the sabbath" faura-sabbato, sa fruma sabbato, indecl.
previously (beforehand) faur-this, faur thata, faura; (at one time) simle; "according to the prophesy which was previously made about you" bi thaim faura faursniwandam ana thuk praufetjam.
price wairth, anda-wairthi, sn.
prick (n.) (sting) •stuggs, sm. (i-stem); (puncture wound) staks, sm. (i-stem).
prick (v.) (stab, puncture) *stikan, sv. V.; (sting) •stuggjan, wv. 1.
prickle (thorn, sharp point) •stikils, sm.
pride hauh-hairtei, wf.; (inflated sense of self-worth) uf-swalleins, sf.; "pride oneself, boast" hwopan, sv. VII.
priest gudja, papa, weiha, wm.
priest, to be a gudjinon, wv. 2.
priesthood gudjinassus, sm.
primacy frumadei, wf.
primary fruma, frumists.
prime frumists; "of prime importance" in frumistjam.
prince (governor) faura-mathleis, faur-stasseis sm.; (ruler) reiks, m. (but gen.sg. reikis; dat.pl. reikam).
principle (adj.) (main, chief, greatest) maists.
prior fruma, w.adj.
prison karkara, sf.; "to put in prison" fra-hinthan, us-hinthan, sv. III.; "hand over to be imprisoned" af-giban, sv. V.
prisoner bandja, wm., fra-hunthana, wm.; (fellow prisoner) mith-fra-hunthana, wm.
private "in private" sundro.
privately sundro.
prize (reward, wage) laun, anda-launi, sn., mizdo, wf.; "prize of victory" sigis-laun.
proactive (zealous, diligent) *us-dauths (gen. us-daudis).
probably (perhaps, quite possibly, most likely) aufto.
problem (trouble) threihsl, sn.; (trouble, confusion, disturbance) un-suti, sn.; (obstacle) marzeins, sf.; (hindrance, cause of contention) ga-marzeins, sf.; (stumbling-block) bi-stugq, sn.
proceed (go forth/out from, rise, spring up) ur-rinnan, wv, III.
proclaim ga-kannjan, wv. 1., ga-sweran, wv. 3., merjan, ga-swikunthjan, wv. 1., ga-teihan, sv. I., us-qithan, sv. V.; "be proclaimed" us-mernan, wv. 4.
proclaimer spilla, sm., merjands, m.
procreate us-satjan, wv. 1.
procreation us-sateins, sf.
produce (offspring) bairan, ga-bairan, sv. IV.; (an effect, cause) gansjan, waurkjan, wv. 1. - waurhta, waurhts; (leaves, twigs, fruit) keinan, sv. I. - keinoda, kijans; (forge, produce metalwork) ga-smithon, wv. 2.; (accomplish, perfect) us-tiuhan, sv. II.; (bring/take out, speak) us-bairan, sv. IV.
product (deed/action, effect) taui, sn.
profane (v.) (unholy) us-weihs; (common) ga-mains (i-stem); (vulgar/rude) aglaiti-; "profane language" aglaiti-waurdei, wf.
profanity (vulgarity) aglaiti, sn.; "profane language" aglaiti-waurdei, wf.
profess and-haitan, sv VII.
proffer rahton, wv. 2.
profit (n.) (financial) ga-waurki, faihu-ga-waurki, sn.; (advantage) bota, sf.; (use, worth, benefit) #bata, wm.
profit (v.) (INTR.) (get wealth) ga-waurkja haban, wv. 3.; (gain) ga-geigan, wv. 3.; (profit by, gain money from, exploit) bi-faihon, wv. 2.; (derive benefit) ga-batnan, wv. 4.; (TRANS.) (be of benefit) botjan, wv. 1., dugan, pp. - daug, dugum, dauhta.
profiteering (usury) wokrs, sm.; (exploitation) bi-faih, sn.
progress (n.) fram-gahts, sf.
progress (v.) *fram-gaggan, sv. VII. - -iddja, -gaggans.
prominent (foremost, most important) frumists; "prominent/leading men" thai frumistans, wm. adj. pl.; (great) mikils; (powerful, great, important) reikeis; (significant) wulthrs.
promise (n.) ga-hait, sn.; (oath) aiths, sm. (gen. aithis).
promise (v.) ga-haitan, faura-ga-haitan, sv. VII.
promote (a viewpoint, propound) in-sakan, us-sakan, sv. VI.; (support) #stutjan, wv. 1.; (support, accomplish) •frumjan, wv. 1.; "promote dissent, agitate, stir up" drobjan, wv. 1.; "promote in public, speak out, spread word" merjan, us-merjan, wv. 1.; "promote the gospel, spread the Christian message" waila-merjan, aiwaggeljan, wv. 1.
promptly (promptly, soon) sprauto; (immediately, soon) suns; (suddenly) anaks; (early) air.
promulgate (propund) in-sakan, us-sakan, sv. VI.; (make known) merjan, wv. 1.; (spread word, publish) us-merjan, wv. 1.; "be published, spread" us-mernan, wv. 4.
prone (lying down) ligands; (inclined towards) *halths.
pronouncement "pronouncements, things said in public" mathleins, sf., mathlei, wf.; (anything said) *qiss, sf.; (argument, claim) in-sahts, sf.; (quote, passage, statement) thata qithano, wn.
pronto sprauto.
proof kusts, sf., kustus, sm.; (evidence) us-taikneins, sf.; (sign, wonder, evidence) taikns, sf.; (vindication, verification, justification, legal defence) sunjons, sf.
prop (n.) (support) #stutja, sf.; (pillar) sauls, sf.
prop up #stutjan, wv. 1.
proper (pure, GENUINE) pistikeins; (DECENT, in appearance, respectable) *ga-fehs; (commendable, proper) *ga-reths (gen. ga-redis); (dignified, modest) ga-riuths (gen. ga-riudis); (FITTING) ga-dofs (i-stem, gen. ga-dobis), tils, ga-tils, fagrs - "it would not be proper if/for..." thatuh wesi withra thata gadob, ei... +subj.; (suitable, worthy) wairths; (OWN) swes (gen. swesis); "one's own" seins silbins (gen., agrees in number & gender with noun) - "thine own soul" theina silbons saiwala; "his own work" waurstw sein silbins.
properly (correctly, rightly) raihtaba; "he spoke properly/normally" rodida raihtaba; (RESPECTABLY) ga-fehaba; (commendably, properly) ga-redaba; (appropriately) ga-temiba, ga-tilaba; (suitably, worthily) wairthaba; (ACTUALLY, in fact, namely) raihtis; (righteously) ga-raihtaba; (accurately, meticulously) glaggwuba, glaggwaba; (truly) sunjaba; (WELL, excellently, kindly) waila.
property aigin, sn, aihts, sf., swes, ?sn.; (wealth, cattle) faihu, sn. (land, field) thaurp, sn., hugs, ?sn.; (allodium, freehold estate) #alauths, sm. (gen. #alaudis).
prophesy (n.) (prophesy, the gift of prophesy) profetja, wm.
prophesy (v.) prophetjan, wv. 1.; (foretell) faura-qithan, sv. V., faura-ga-teihan, sv, I.
prophet prophetus, prophetes, sm.
prophetess propheteis, f.
propitious ga-dofs (i-stem, gen. ga-dobis); "it would not be proptious for..." thatuh wesi withra thata gadof, ei... +subj.
propound in-sakan, us-sakan, sv. VI.
prosper theihan, ga-theihan, wv. 1.
prostitute kalkjo, wf.
protect (shield, help) hleibjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (keep safe) bairgan, sv. III. +dat. "from" faura +dat.; (protect, shield, shelter) •skairmjan, wv. 1. (?dat. as in MHG); (keep safe, take into safekeeping) *ga-freisjan, wv. 1.
protection #munda, sf. (in masc. PNs > #mundus, sm.); (shelter) •bairga, sf.; (peace, protection) #frithus, sm.; (a shield) skildus, sm.; (armour) brunjo, wf.; (arms & armour) sarwa, sn.pl.; (help) *hilpa, sf.; (support) #stutja, sf.; (guard) wardja, wm.; (watch) witains, sf.
proud hauh-hairts, hauh-thuhts, mikil-thuhts; (foolhardy, brash) un-tila-malsks; "be overly proud" ufar-hugjan, wv. 1.
prove (prove, test, taste) kausjan, wv. 1. (+gen. = "taste", +acc. = "test, etc."); (choose, test) kiusan, sv. II.; (select, prove, test) us-kiusan, sv. II +acc.; (demonstrate, signify, indicate, show) us-taiknjan, wv. 1.; "prove oneself to be" ustaiknjan sik +acc.; "prove faithful, INTR." sik triggws bigitan, sv. V.
proven *ga-kusans.
proverb (fable, saying) ga-juko, wf.
provide and-staldan, sv. VII. +acc. "with" +dat.; und-redan, sv. VII. +acc. for thing supplied; •warnjan, wv. 1.
providence "divine providence, the plan of righteousness/justice" ga-raihteins ga-rehsns, sf.; "God's plan" gudis runa, sf. "concerning" ana +acc.
provisions (food) fodeins, us-fodeins, sf.; (food, meal) mats, sm. (i-stem); (sustenance, nourishment, well-being) waila-wizns, sf.; (necessities, supplies, living expenses) anda-wizns, sf.; (make provision for) ga-redan, sv. VII. +acc.
provoke gramjan, in-gramjan, wv. 1.
prune (v.) (cut away, amputate, castrate) us-maitan, sv. VII.
psalm psalmo, ?wf.
public (the public/masses) filusna, sf.sg.; "public discourse" mathleins, sf., mathlei, wf.; "become public" us-mernan, wv. 4.; "make public, divulge" us-qithan, sv. V.; "proclaim, preach, make public" merjan, us-merjan, wv. 1.
publican (inn-keeper, cup-bearer) *skagkja, wm.
publicly (openly) and-augiba, and-augjo; "publicly single out, expose in public, ostracise, note, treat as notorious" ga-tarhjan, wv. 1.; "publicly denounce, accuse" fairinon, wv. 2., wrohjan, wv. 1.; "publicly/loudly lament" wai-fairhwjan, wv. 1.
publish (spread word) us-merjan, wv. 1.; "be published, spread, made known" us-mernan, wv. 4.
puddle •lona, sf.
puff up uf-bauljan, wv. 1., uf-blesan, av. VII. - *uf-baibles, *uf-blesans.
pull *thinsan, wv. 3.; (draw, guide, lead) tiuhan, sv. II.; (pull towards, bring) at-tiuhan, sv. II.; (draw towards, attract) at-thinsan, wv. 3.; (pull out, pick) raupjan, wv. 1.
pulverise (grind up) malan, sv. VI., •grindan, sv. III.; (crush, bruise) ga-malwjan, wv. 1.; (hit, punch) slahan, sv. VI.; (hit, push) stauran, sv. VII.; (destroy) qistjan, fra-qistjan, us-qistjan, wv. 1. +dat. or +acc.; (smash, shatter) dis-hniupan, sv. II.
punch (n.) (hit) slahs, sm. (i-stem); (wound, blow) banja, sf.
punch (v.) (hit) slahan, sv. VI.; (strike in the face, slap, castigate) wlizjan, wv. I.; (beat, strike) •biutan, sv. II.; (smite, push) stautan, sv. VII.; (beat) bliggwan, sv. III.; (slap) kaupatjan, wv. 1. - kaupasta, kaupatiths.
puncture (n.) (puncture, puncture wound, stab mark) staks, sm. (i-stem).
puncture (v.) (stab, prick, puncture) *stikan, sv. V.
punish (take revenge on) fra-weitan, sv, I.; (chastise, bruise, hit in face) wlizjan, wv. 1.
punishment #weiti, sn.; (revenge, punishment) fra-weit, sn.; (torture) balweins, sf.
pupil (disciple) siponeis, sm.; "to be a disciple/student" siponjan, wv. 1.
purblind haihs.
purchase (v.) bugjan, us-bugjan, wv. 1. - bauhta, bauhts (acc. of commodity, dat. of amount or recipient of commodity).
pure hlutrs, hrains (i-stem); (flawless, immaculate) un-wamms; (innocent) swikns; (pure of heart) hrainja-hairts; (pure, genuine) pistikeins.
pure-hearted hrainja-hairts.
pureness hlutrei, swiknei, wf., swiknitha, sf.; (flawlessness) un-wammei, wf.
purification hraineins, swikneins, sf.
purify hrainjan, swiknjan, wv. 1.
purity hlutrei, swiknei, wf., swiknitha, sf.; (flawlessness) un-wammei, wf.
purloin bi-niman, sv. IV., hlifan, sv. V., stilan, sv. IV.
purple (adj.) paurpuroths.
purple (n.) (purple, the Purple, a purple garment) paurpura, sf.; "dye/colour purple" paurpuron, wv. 2.
purpose (n.) (REASON, USEFUL PURPOSE) sautha, sf.; (USE, ADVANTAGE) bota, sf. - "what use to me?" hwo boto mis?; "Christ is no use to you" Xristus izwis nist du botai (izwis=dat.); "what use to me?" hwo mis boto?; "be of use, SERVE SOME USEFUL PURPOSE" botjan, wv. 1. +acc., dugan, pp. - daug, dugum, dauhta; "there is NO PURPSE in fighting over words" waurdam weihan du ni waihtai daug; (GOAL, objective, target) mundrei, wf.; (END, reason) andeis, sm.; (DETERMINATION, PURPOSEFULNESS) muns, sm. (i-stem); (THING, CAUSE) waihts, sf. (usually, but acc.pl. waihts also found, Sk 2,c); "for that purpose/reason" duth-the, in this, in thizos waihtais; "with that purpose, to that end" ?and thana laist (cf. Sk 5,a Marchand translation - but others have "following this" - & cf. Sk 2,d).
purse puggs, sm.
pursue (chase, route, make run) *rannjan, wv. 1. (+dat.? cf. ON renna); (follow) laistjan, ga-laistjan, afar-laistjan, wv. 1., afar-gaggan, sv. VII. - afar-iddja, afar-gaggans.
pursuer "router, chaser, one who causes to flee" (r)rannja, wm.
push (shove) *skiuban, sv. II.; (hit, push) stautan, sv. VII.; (thrust, push, make war) stigqan, sv. III.; (bump, collide with) bi-stigqan, sv. III.; (push away/aside) af-skiuban, sv. II.; (push off) af-tiuhan, SV. II.; (push over, throw down, knock down) af-drausjan, ga-drausjan, wv. 1., at-wairpan, sv. III., ga-wairpan, sv. III.; (force, compel) nauthjan, ana-nauthjan, baidjan, ga-baidjan, wv. 1.
pushed, to be ga-driusan, sv. II.
put away (HIDE, keep safe) bairgan, sv. III.; (hide, bury) filhan, ga-filhan, sv. III.; (make secret) •darnjan, wv. 1.; (cover) huljan, ga-huljan, wv. 1., hilan, sv. IV.; (REJECT) us-kiusan, sv. II. +dat., af-wairpan, sv. III.; (spurn, rebuff) (reject, despise) uf-brikan, sv. IV. +dat., fra-kunnan, pp. - fra-kann, fra-kunnum, fra-kuntha (dat. or: at +dat.); (send/drive away) "send/drive away" us-dreiban, sv. I. +dat. or +acc.
put (put, place, set, put down) satjan, ga-satjan, us-satjan, lagjan, ga-lagjan, at-lagjan, wv. 1. - "place your hand on her" atlagei handu theina ana ija; (PUT ROUND something) bi-satjan, wv. 1.; (PUT TOGETHER out of, form from) us-satjan us, wv. 1. +dat.; (PUT UP, erect) raisjan, wv. 1.; (erect with stakes - e.g. a tent) stakjan, wv. 1.; (put up, build) timrjan, wv. 1.; "PUT UP WITH" (suffer, toletate) thulan, ga-thulan, us-thulan, wv. 3.; (cope with) fra-bairan, sv. IV.; "PUT ON" (CLOTHES) wasjan sik, ga-wasjan sik, wv. 1., ga-hamon, ana-hamon, wv. 2. (dat. of item of clothing); (put on over the top of) ufar-hamon, wv. 2. +dat.; "put on a coat" ga-paidon, wv. 2.; (PUT OUT, extinguish, suffocate) af-hwapjan, wv. 1.; "to be put out/extinguished/choked" af-hwapnan, wv. 4.; (put/fit TOGETHER) ga-ga-tilon, wv. 2.
puzzle (n.) (mystery) runa, sf.
puzzle (v.) (confuse, bewitch) af-hugjan, wv. 1.
pyre #strawa, sf.
quake (n.) reiro, wf.
quake (v.) reiran, wv. 3.
quaking (n.) reiro, wf.
qualification (worthiness, suitability) wairthida, sf.
quality (worth) wairth, sn.
quantify (measure) mitan, sv. V.; (set price on) wairthon, wv. 2.; (rate, judge) rahnjan, ga-rahnjan, wv. 1.; "value higher" faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.
quantity (measure, bushel) mitaths, f. (gen. pl. mitade), mitadjo, wf., mela, wm.; (quantity, heap) thraihn, sn.; (number, account) rathjo, wf.
quarrel (n.) (quarrel/dispute, fight/boxing-match) jiuka, sf.; (cause of contention) fairina, sf. - "a dispute/quarrel against" fairina withra +acc.; "quarrelling/strife" sakjo, waihjo, us-balthei, wf., brakja, sf.; (slandering) bi-hait, sn.; (uproar, outcry, shouting) hrops, sm.
quarrel (v.) (dispute, rebuke, accuse) sakan, and-sakan, sv. VI.; (dispute, compete) and-rinnan, sv. III.; (fight) haiftjan, wv. 1.; (break, fight, quarrel) brikan, sv. IV.
quarreller sokareis, sm.
quarrelsome sakuls; (impertinent, bold, quarrelsome) *thrasa-balths, *us-balths.
quarter, from every aljathro.
quench af-hwapjan, wv. 1.; "be quenched" af-hwapnan, wv. 4.
query (question, have scruples) and-hruskan, wv. 3.; (raise a question) ga-wagjan sokein, sf., wv. 1.; (dispute) sakan, sv. VI. - "they queried whether he was in fact a Pharisee" sokun thatei sa raihtis Fareisaius was; (ask) fraihnan, sv. V. (gen. of thing, acc. of person asked).
quest for (seek/seach for) ga-sokjan, wv. 1.
QUESTION ASKING QUESTIONS: -u-...? (The particle -u- indicates a question, in direct or indirect speech; attached to first word in phrase, especially a verb - "is it permitted?" skuldu ist? If the verb has a prefix, the -u- comes right after the prefix: "do the two of you believe?" ga-u-laubjats?; "him or his parents?" sa-u thau fadrein is?); (Another question particle, used at start of phrase) "so...?, then...?" an, an-uh; "what then" an hwa...?; (NOTE: These particles not required in the main clause if other more specific ones are used, thus) "why are you so afraid?" duhwe faurhtai sijuth swa?; (RHETORICAL) "surely one can't go back in the womb?" ibai mag in wamba aftra galeithan?; "for would he not seem then..." nei auk thuhtedi thau...; "Am I a Jew?" waitei ik iudaius im? (Said by Pilot).
question (n.) (question, enquiry, investigation) sokeins, sf. - "a question/debate was raised concerning purification" warth bi swiknein sokeins ga-wagida; (single question, word, a few words) waurd, sn.; "I will also ask you a question" fraihna jah ik izwis ainis waurdis.
question (v.) (dispute) sakan, sv. VI. - "they questioned whether he was in fact a Pharisee" sokun thatei sa raihtis Fareisaius was; (ask) fraihnan, ga-fraihnan, sv. V. (gen. of thing, acc. of person asked) - "about" bi +acc.; (query, worry over) and-hruskan, wv. 3.; (seek, try, debate, question) sokjan, wv. 1.; "cause to question, make doubt" tweifljan, wv. 1.; (interrogate, investigate, judge) us-sukjan, wv. 1.
quick (ADJ.) (speedy) •adrs, •snills, *sniumeis; (quick, ready) #arws; (ADV.) (quickly) sniumundo; (promptly, soon) sprauto; (quick as a flash, suddenly) anaks; (soon, immediately) suns.
quicker sniumundos.
quickly (fast) sniumundo; (soon) sprauto.
quiet (n.) (calm) ana-qal, ?sn.
quiet (adj.) (peaceful) sutis; "to be/become quiet" af-dumbnan, af-dobnan, wv. 4, slawan, ga-slawan, ana-slawan, thahan, ga-thahan, ana-silan, wv. 3.
quite (altogether, completely, in every respect) bi all, in allamma; "I am quite/completely deprived" allamma gasleithiths im; (utterly) all-andjo; (fully, perfectly) fulla-; (totally, very) ala-; "very pleasing, quite acceptable" waila anda-nems; (exactly, accurately) glaggwo - "you know quite well that..." glaggwo wituth thatei...; (indeed) "yes indeed" jai; (actually, for instance) raihtis (Used in second position in clause); "quite surely" triggwaba.
quiver (v.) reiran, wv. 3.
quivering (n.) reiro, wf.
quote (n.) "the quote/passage/expression" thata qithano, wn.
rabbi rabbei, ?
race (nation, tribe, ethnicity) thiuda, sf.; (family, kin) kuni, sn.; (lineage, kin) fadreins, knoths, sf. (gen. knodais); (tribe, race) •slahta, sf.
race-course (Also a 'stadion' = measure of distance) spaurds, f.
race-track (Also a 'stadion' = measure of distance) spaurds, f.
racket auhjodus, sm.
racketeering (exploitation) bi-faih, sn.; (usury) wokrs, sm.
radiance glitmuni, sn.
rafter (beam) *ans, sm., (dat.sg. anza), #rafts, sm., •sparra, wm.
rag fana, sm., •fata, sf., •laska, sf.
rage (n.) (anger) moths, sm. (gen. modis), thwairhei, wf.; (hate, wrath) hatis, sn. (gen. *hatizis); (hate, envy, anger) neith, sn. (gen. neithis); (fury, ferocity) •grimmitha, sf.
rage (v.) (be angry at) hatizon, wv. 2., neiwan, sv. I.; (rage, bluster) •staurmjan, wv. 1.
rail against ubil-waurdjan, wv. 1.
raiment (garment) wasti, sf.; (clothing) wastjos, sf.pl., ga-waseins, ga-skadweins, sf.
rain (n.) rign, sn.
rain (v.) rignjan, wv. 1. - "upon" ana +acc.; "from" us +dat.; "it rained brimstone and fire" rignida swibla jah funin.
raise (lift) hafjan, sv. VI.; (lift, take away) us-hafjan, sv. VI. - "uz-uh-hoh augona "and he raised his eyes"; (raise, rouse, wake) ur-raisjan, wv. 1.; (rear child/animal) aljan, fodjan, wv. 1.; "a question/debate was raised concerning purification" warth bi swiknein sokeins ga-wagida.
rake (n.) •raka, sf.
rake (v.) "rake together, pile/hoard up" rikan, sv. V.
rammer (wooden ramming tool, pestle) •stampa, sf.
rampart (wall) *waddjus, sf.; (of town) baurgs-waddjus, sf.; (earthwork, defensive trench) graba, sf.
ransom anda-bauhts, sf., lun, sn.; "pay ransom, bail out" *us-lunjan, wv. 1.
ransoming (n.) us-luneins, sf.
rare *silds.
rash (rash, too proud) un-tila-malsks.
rasp (v.) (scratch) •raspon, wv. 2.
rate (v.) (regard/consider as, value, judge) rahnjan, ga-rahnjan, domjan, wv. 1.; "rate as higher/better" faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.
rather (MORE SO, MORE LIKELY) haldis - "by no means" ni the haldis; (MORE) mais; "RATHER THAN" mais thau; (parenthetical) "OR RATHER" maizuth-than = maizuh than; (SOMEWHAT) hwa; (ON THE CONTRARY) thata anda-neitho, thata withra-wairtho; (AS OPPOSED TO) "RATHER THAN THAT ONE" thau raihtis jains; "NO, RATHER he deludes the crowd" ne, ak airzeith tho managein.
rational (sensible, consciencious, thinking) anda-thahts; (reasonable) *ga-frathjis; (logical, verbal) waurdahs.
rave (act/speak as if mad) dwalmon, wv. 2.
raven #hrabns, sm.
ravine dals, sm.
raving (adj.) (mad) woths (gen. wodis).
raving (n.) (nonsense, empty words) lausa-waurdei, wf.; (foolish talk) dwala-waurdei, wf.
re- aftra-
reach "come, arrive at" (place, etc.) at-gaggan, du-at-gaggan, sv. VII. - at-iddja, at-gaggans; (approach) ana-qiman, sv. IV., nehwjan sik, at-nehwjan, wv. 1.; (attain/obtain, arrive at) ga-tilon, wv. 2., ga-sniwan bi/du, sv. V. (bi +acc. / du +dat.); (reach, extend) fair-rinnan, sv. III. (du +dat.); (REACH OUT) uf-rakjan, sv. 1. - "reach out a hand" ufrakjan handu; (reach out, strive) sik uf-thanjan, wv. 1.
read ana-kunnan, wv. 3.; (aloud) us-siggwan, sv. III.
reading ana-kunnains, sf.; (reading from Bible) laiktjo, wf.; (chant, song, recitation) saggws, sm.
ready manwus, ga-raiths (gen. ga-raidis); (quick, ready) #arws; (adv.) manwuba; "to be ready" manwuba haban, wv. 3.; "get/make ready, prepare" manwjan, ga-manwjan, skaftjan sik, wv. 1.; (work, perform, prepare) ga-waurkjan, wv. 1. - ga-waurhta, ga-waurhts; (dress, get ready) •garwon, wv. 2.
real (true) sunjis, sunjeins; (pure, genuine) pistikeins.
realise (perceive) gaumjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (become aware) uf-kunnan, (present as wv. 3., pret. almost always strong: uf-kuntha, but one example each of weak pret. and past part.: uf-kunnaida, uf-kunnaidai); (understand) frathjan, sv. VI. +dat.
really (truly) sunjaba, bi sunjai, mith sunjai; (indeed) aiththau jah; (for sure) triggwaba - "they really believe, they are certain" triggwaba galaubjand; (actually, certainly, in fact, indeed; because, for, as is known) raihtis - "he really was a Pharisee" sa raihtis Fareisaius was; (at all) allis - "for if you had really believed in Moses" jabai allis Moses galaubidedeith.
realm (state, empire, government, authority) reiki, sn.; (kingdom) thiudan-gardi, sf.
reanimate *aftra-ga-qiujan, wv. 1.
reap sneithan, sv. I.
rear (adj.) aftuma.
rear (raise a child, animal) aljan, fodjan, wv. 1.
reason (n.) (PURPOSE, good reason) sautha, sf.; (end, purpose) andeis, sm.; (thing, CAUSE) waihts, sf. (usually, but acc.pl. waihts also found, Sk 2,c); "reason/grounds for accusation" fairina, sf.; "for that reason" duth-the, in this, in thizos waihtais; "for no reason, in vain" sware; (REASONING, thought) mitons, sf.; (reasonableness, rationality, intelligence, sobriety) ga-frathjei, wf.
reasonable (intelligent, sober) *ga-frathjis; "be reasonable" waila frathjan, sv. VI.
reasonableness (discretion, good sense, sobriety) ga-frathjei, wf.
rebuff uf-brikan, sv. IV. +dat.
rebuke (n.) anda-beit, sn., ga-sahts, hwota, sf., id-weit, sn.
rebuke (v.) ga-sakan, sv. VI. +dat. or +acc., ana-haitan, sv. VII. +dat.; (rebuke, argue with) sakan, sv. VI. +dat.; (threaten, accuse) hwotjan, ga-hwotjan, wv. 1.; (reproach, blame) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.
recall (remember, bear in mind) ga-munan, pp. - ga-man, ga-munum, ga-munda (gen., acc.); "recall that..." ga-munan that-ei...; "recall what was said" gamunan this waurdis / thata waurd; "because of her joy, she doesn't remember the pain" ni gaman thizos aglons faura fahedai; (remind, recall) ga-maudjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person reminded, gen. of thing recalled); "I remind you to" gamaudja thuk + inf.; (remember) ga-maudein and-niman, sv. IV.
recollection (remembrance) ga-munds, ga-maudeins, sf., ga-minthi, sn.
receipt (receiving, acceptance) anda-nem, sn., anda-numts, sf.; (document) "deed of sale" fra-bauhta-boka; "pledge document" wadja-bokos.
receive and-niman, fra-niman, sv. IV.; (take, get, receive) niman, sv. IV.; (get, learn, bring along, conceive child) ga-niman, sv. IV. - "receive from" ga-niman at +dat.; (be allotted) *hliutan, sv. II.; "s-one receives s-thing by inheritence" waihts und-rinnith ainamma, sv. III.
receiving anda-nem, sn., anda-numts, sf.
receptive (accepting, holding firm) anda-nemeigs.
reciprient *numja, wm., *numjo, wf.
reciprocally misso.
recite us-siggwan, sv. III.
reckon (count, judge, value) rahnjan, ga-rahnjan, wv. 1.; "I reckon, it seems to me" thugkeith mis; (believe, hold opinion) munan, pp. - man, munum, munda.; (believe) ga-laubjan, wv. 1. (dat. of person, acc. of thing); "reckon superior" faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.
recline ana-kumbjan, wv. 1.
recognise (realise) ga-kunnan, wv. 3., uf-kunnan, (present as wv. 3., pret. almost always strong: uf-kuntha, but one example each of weak pret. and past part.: uf-kunnaida, uf-kunnaidai); (defer/submit to, acknowledge authority of) ga-kunnan, pp. - ga-kann, ga-kunnum, ga-kuntha.
recognition (of facts, knowledge) uf-kunthi, sn.
recommend (advocate, recommend person, entrust as tradition) ana-filhan, sv. III.; (introduce) ga-kannjan, us-kannjan, wv. 1.
recommendation ana-filh, sn.
recompense (n.) anda-launi, sn.
recompense (v.) (pay) us-gildan, sv. III.; (pay up, show) us-giban, sv. V.
recon (visit, scouting/spying out) niuhseins, sf.
reconcile ga-frithon, wv. 2. +acc. - "to/with" +dat.; "make one's peace with, become reconciled with" ga-sibjon, wv. 2. +dat.
reconciliation ga-frithons, sf.
reconnaissance (inspection, scouting visit) niuhseins, sf.
reconnoitre bi-niuhsjan, wv. 1.
recover (get well) ga-nisan, sv. V., ga-hailnan, wv. 4., waila wairthith (impersonal +dat.) - "they will get better" waila wairthith im.
rectification ga-raihteins, sf.
rectify ga-raihtjan, at-ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.; (mend) aftra ga-botjan, wv. 1., aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1.
red rauths (gen. raudis).
redden *riudan, sv. II.; (blush) *ga-riudan, sv. II.
redeem (pay ransom for) *us-lunjan, wv. 1.; (buy, buy back) us-bugjan, wv. 1. +dat. or +acc. - us-bauhta, us-bauhts.
redeem us-bugjan, wv. 1. - us-bauhta, us-bauhts.
redemption faurbauhts, sf., us-luneins, sf.; (invitation, consolation, redemption) lathons, sf.
redemption us-luneins, sf.
reduce (curtail, cut short, reduce in number) ga-maurgjan, wv. 1.
reduction wanains, sf.
reed raus, sn. (gen. rausis).
reef (rib, reef) •ribi, sn.
reel (n.) haspa, sf.
reel in haspan, ana-haspan, wv. 3.
refer (apply/relate an example to) thairh-ga-leikon, wv. 2.; (compare, give birth to) ga-bairan, sv. IV.
reflect (think) hugjan, wv. 1.; (consider, take note of, reflect on) at-saihwan, sv. V.
reflection (image, example) fri-sahts, sf.; "see as a reflection" saihwan thairh skuggwan, thairh-saihwan, sv. V.
refrain (v.) "hold back, avoid, refrain" ga-haban sik, wv. 3. - "from" af +dat.
refresh ana-thrafstjan, wv. 1.
refusal (refusal, reluctance) us-werei, wf.
refuse (n.) (excrement, rubbish) smarnos, sf.pl.; (reject, abortion) us-waurpa, sf.
refuse (v.) un-werjan, wv. 1.
regard (n.) (respect, obedience) uf-hauseins, sf.; (respect, high regard) *aiza, sf.; "regard as superior" faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.; "regarding" bi +dat., faur +acc.; "in this regard" in thizai halbai; "in every regard" bi all, in allamma.
regard (v.) (rate, judge) rahnjan, ga-rahnjan, domjan, wv. 1., miton, wv. 2.; (believe, consider as) munan, pp. man, munum, munda; (watch, pay attention/consideration to, have regard/deference for) and-saihwan, sv. III.; (look at, consider) in-saihwan, sv. V.; (pay attention to, aim towards) mundon, wv. 2. +acc.; (gaze, stare, watch, look attentively) fair-weitjan, wv. 1. "at" du, or +gen. - "up to, as far as" in +acc.; "watch up to the end of" fairweitjan und andi +gen.; "respect, honour, have regard for" sweran, aistan, ga-aistan, wv. 3.
regarding bi +dat., faur +acc.
regiment thusundi, sf.; "regiment commander" thiu-faths, thusundi-faths, sm. (i-stem, gen. -fadis).
region gawi, sn, gaujans (wm. pl.), land, sn.; (region, side) fera, sf.; (region, earth) airtha, sf.
register ana-meljan, wv. 1.
registration (e.g. for tax) meleins, sf.
regret (n.) (remorse) idreiga, sf.; (sadness) trigo, wf.
regret (v.) idreigon, wv. 2.
regular (frequent, continual, daily) sinteins; (normal) bi-uhts.
regularly (often) ufta; (continually) sinteino.
reign (n.) "the thirty-second year of Ataxerxes' reign" jer 30 jah anthar Artarksairksaus.
reign over fraujinon +dat., ga-fraujinon +dat., raginon +dat., reikinon +dat., thiudanon ufar, wv. 2. +dat., ga-waldan, sv. VII. +dat., faura-standan, sv. V.
rein •brigdil, sn.
reinvite (invite back/again) aftra-ga-lathon, wv. 2.
reject (n.) (ejection, cast-off, miscarriage) us-waurpa, sf.
reject us-kiusan, sv. II. +dat.; (reject, deny, frustrate, refuse) in-widan, sv. V.; (reject, despise) uf-brikan, sv. IV., fra-kunnan, pp. - fra-kann, fra-kunnum, fra-kuntha (dat. or: at +dat.); (throw out, reject, drive out, overthrow) us-wairpan, sv. III. +dat. or +acc.; (condemn, curse) af-domjan, wv. 1.; (refuse, disagree) un-werjan, wv. 1.; "spit at, despise, reject" and-speiwan, sv. I.
rejected fra-kunths; "be rejected" fra-kunths wairthan, sv. III.
rejoice faginon, wv. 2., sifan, wv. 3., swignjan, swegnjan, wv. 1.; "rejoice in/about/because of" faginon +dat., faginon in +dat., faginon in +gen., faginon ana +dat.; "rejoice because/that" faginon thammei, faginon in thammei, sifan ei +subjunctive; (rejoice in spirit, in one's heart) swegnjan ahmin.
rejoicing (n.) swegnitha, swignitha, sf.
relate (tell) ga-teihan, sv. I., spillon, wv, II.; (refer) thairh-ga-leikon, wv. 2.; (compare, give birth to) ga-bairan, sv. IV.
related sama-kuns (i-stem).
relation (male) ga-nithjis, sm.; (female) ga-nithjo, wf.; (kin, relations) kuni, sn.
relationship sibja, sf.
relax (INTR.) (pause) hweilan, ga-hweilan, wv. 3.; (leave off - e.g. of fit/madness) af-linnan, sv. III.; (TRANS.) (ease, soothe) •linthjan, wv. 1.; "give rest/respite to" ana-hweilan, wv. 3.; (refresh, cheer, comfort) ana-thrafstjan, wv. 1.; (relax/relieve burdon, help with debts) *un-kaurjan, wv. 1.
relaxation (respite, rest) ga-hweilains, sf.
release (n.) fra-let, sn.
release (v.) fra-letan, sv, VII. +acc., lausjan, wv. 1. +acc. - "from" us +dat.; "be released" and-letnan, wv. 4.
reliability (firmness, steadfastness) tulgitha, sf.; (security, safety, firmness) thwastitha, sf.; (certainty, truth) astaths, sf.
reliable triggws; (truthful) un-luigands.
reliably (truly) sunjaba.
relief (amelioration, improvement in condition) iusila, sf.; (relieving of burden, alleviation of debts) un-kaureins, sf.; (soothing) •lintheins, sf.; (charity/alms, mercy) arma-hairtitha, sf., armaio, wf.; (supplies, aid, support) and-stald, sn.; (supplies, needs, living expenses) anda-wizns, sf.; (support) #stutja, sf.; (help) *hilpa, sf.
relieve (refresh, cheer, comfort) ana-thrafstjan, wv. 1.; (alleviate) •linthjan, wv. 1.; (ameliorate, improve) *iusilon, wv. 2.; (unburden, help out with debts/expenses) *un-kaurjan, wv. 1.; "give rest/respite to" ana-hweilan, wv. 3.
relocate mith-satjan, wv. 1.
reluctance (unwillingness, refusal) un-werei, wf.; (reluctance, regret) trigo, sf.
reluctant *un-wers (i-stem); "to be reluctant, to refuse" un-wenjan, wv. 1.
reluctantly us trigon.
rely on (trust) trauan, ga-trauan, wv. 3. +dat., wenjan in/du, wv. 1. +dat.
remain (stay behind) af-lifnan, wv. 4, bi-leiban, sv. I.; (dwell, carry on being, continue to exist) wisan, sv. V.; (stay) ga-wisan, sv. V. - "he remained dumb" gawas dumbs; (continue, persist) thairh-wisan, fram-wairthis wisan, sv. V.; "he remained dumb" gawas dumbs; (be, be in existence) "they remain to this day, they are still here/alive" sind und hita; (remain in place/condition, come to a stop, stay standing still, abide, stand fast) ga-standan, sv. VI.; "remain with, stay with" mith-ga-wisan, sv. V.
remainder laiba, sf.
remark qithan, sv. V.
remarkable (amazing) silda-leiks.
remedy (v.) (heal) hailjan, ga-hailjan, wv. 1. +gen., aftra gasatjan, wv. 1., lekinon, wv. 2.; (save, heal) ga-nasjan, wv. 1.; (rectify, correct) ga-raihtjan, at-ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.; (mend) aftra ga-botjan, wv. 1., aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1.
remember (recall, bear in mind) ga-munan, pp. - ga-man, ga-munum, ga-munda (gen., acc.); "remember that..." ga-munan that-ei...; "remember what was said" gamunan thata waurd / this waurdis; "because of her joy, she doesn't remember the pain" ni gaman thizos aglons faura fahedai; (remind, recall) ga-maudjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person reminded, gen. of thing recalled); "I remind you to" gamaudja thuk + inf.; (recall) ga-maudein and-niman, sv. IV.
remembrance ga-munds, ga-maudeins, sf., ga-minthi, sn.
remind ga-maudjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person reminded, gen. of thing to remember); "I remind you to" gamaudja thuk + inf.
remission (of sins) af-lageins, sf, af-lets, sm., fra-lets, sm.
remnant laiba, sf.
remorse idreiga, sf.
remorseful *idreigs.
remove (take away) af-niman, us-niman, sv. IV.; (shift, transplant) mith-satjan, wv. 1.
remuneration laun, sn., anda-launi, sn.
rend tahjan, wv. 1., *tairan, wv. 4.; *skreitan, sv. I.; (tear up/apart/to pieces) dis-skreitan, sv. I, dis-tairan, ga-tairan, sv. IV.
renew ana-niujan, wv. 1.
renewal ana-niujitha, sf.; (restoration) aftra-ana-stodeins, sf.
renounce af-qithan, sv. V. +dat., af-aikan, sv. VII.+acc., af-standan, sv. VI. +dat.
renown (fame, boast) hwoftuli; (report, rumour) meritha, sf.; (fame) *merei, wf.; (glory) #hroms, sm.; (triumph, glory/fame in victory) *hroth, sn. (gen. *hrothis); (exaltedness) hauhitha, sf.; (honour) *swerei, wf., *sweritha, sf.; "seek renown for one's self" hauhitha seina sokjan, wv. 1.; (importance, worthiness) wairthida, sf.; (prestige, insight, opinion, judgement) doms, sm.
renowned (esteemed) swers; (famous) *mereis, *hluths (gen. *hluthis); (reputable, well-regarded) thuhts, waila-mereis.
rent apart, to be dis-skritnan, dis-taurnan, wv. 4.
repair aftra ga-botjan, wv. 1., aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1.; (rectify) at-ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.
repay (pay, repay) us-gildan, sv. III.; (pay up, show) us-giban, sv. V.
repeal (abolish) blauthjan, wv. 1.
repeat (say again) aftra qithan, sv. V.; "she began to repeat to those present" aftra dugann qithan thaim faurastandandam.
repent idreigon, ga-idreigon, wv. 2.; "I repent, I'm sorry" idreigo mik (ana +dat. for thing repented).
repentance idreiga, sf.
replant (transplant, shift) mith-satjan, wv. 1.
replendent wulthags.
replica ga-leiki, sn.
report (n.) (rumour, fame) meritha, sf.; (message, teaching) hauseins, sf.
report (v.) spillon, us-spillon, sv. II. "to" +dat., (tell, reveal) ga-teihan, sv. I. (acc. of information, dat. of recipient), ga-swikunthjan, wv. 1.; (tell everyone, demean, participate) ga-mainjan, ga-ga-mainjan, wv. 1. +dat.; "they reported to him everything they had done" usspillodedun imma swa filu swe gatawidedun.
reprehensible *wahs, fairina, w.adj.
repress (persecute) wrikan, sv. V., wrakjan, wv. 1.; (oppress, burden) kaurjan, wv. 1.; (coerce, bully, tyrannise) ana-mahtjan, wv. 1.
repression (perecution) wraka, wrakja, sf., wrekei, wf.; (power, tyranny, violence, coersion) ana-mahts, sf.
reprimand (n.) anda-beit, sn., ga-sahts, hwota, sf., id-weit, sn.
reprimand (v.) (rebuke, scold) ga-sakan, sv. VI. +dat. or +acc., ana-haitan, sv. VII. +dat., and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.; (rebuke, argue with) sakan, sv. VI. +dat.; (threaten, accuse) hwotjan, ga-hwotjan, wv. 1.; (reproach, blame) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.; (slap in face) wlizjan, wv. 1.; (punish, avenge) fra-weitan, sv, I.; (teach, reprimand) talzjan, wv. 1.
reproach (n.) id-weit, sn.
reproach (v.) ga-sakan, sv. VI. +dat. or +acc.; (reproach, blame, revile) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.
reprobate (adj.) us-kusans.
reprobate (n.) un-sibjis, ubil-tojis, fra-waurhts, sm., missa-taujands, m.; (criminal) wai-dedja, wm.
reproof ga-sahts, sf., anda-beit, sn., id-weit, sn.
reprove (rebuke, scold) ga-sakan, sv. VI. +dat. or +acc., ana-haitan, sv. VII. +dat.; (rebuke, argue with) sakan; (threaten, accuse) hwotjan, ga-hwotjan, wv. 1.; (reproach, blame, revile) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.
repugnant anda-sets (i-stem).
repulse af-skiuban, sv. II.
repulsive anda-sets (i-stem).
reputable thuhts, waila-mereis.
reputation (fame, repute) *merei; (report, rumour) meritha, sf.; (good repute) waila-merei, wf.; "bad reputation" *ubil-merei, sf.
repute (fame) *merei, wf.; (glory) #hroms, sm.; (fame, boast) hwoftuli; (report, rumour) meritha, sf.; (triumph, glory/fame in victory) *hroth, sn. (gen. *hrothis); "good repute" waila-merei, wf.; "ill repute" *ubil-merei, sf.
reputed (SUPPOSED, imagined) ahiths; (expected, supposed) ga-weniths, wv. 1.; (presupposed, prejudged) faura-domiths; munds; (RECKONED, considered) rahniths; (FAMED) *mereis; (of good repute) waila-mereis; (esteemed) swers.
request (n.) aihtrons, bida, sf.; (complaint, plaint, demand) *aihtr, sn.; (entreaty) uf-bloteins, sf.; (intercession) liteins, sf.
request (v.) (ask, pray) bidjan, sv. V.; (ask, learn by asking) fraihnan, ga-fraihnan, sv. V. (gen. of thing, acc. of person asked); (beg) aihtron, wv. 2.
require thaurban, pp. +gen., tharf, thaurbum, thaurfta.
requirement tharba, thaurfts, naudi-thaurfts, nauths, sf. (gen. nauthais) - "requirement of/for" nauths +gen.; "requirements, supplies, living expenses" anda-wizns, sf.
requite us-giban, sv. V., us-gildan, sv. III.
requisite "requisites, supplies, living expenses" anda-wizns, sf.
resemblance ga-leiki, sn.
resemble ga-leikon, wv. 2. +dat.; "transform to resemble" inn-ga-leikon, wv. 2. +dat.
reside bauan, wv. 3., saljan, wv. 1.
residence (dwelling) bauains, *dauka, •baggwitha, sf.; (house) hus, sn.; (village, home village, homestead, farm) haims, sf. (but declined as o-stem in pl.); (home, habitat, homeland) •arthus, sm.; (lodgings, mansion) salithwos, sf.pl.; "at home, in residence" ana-haimeis; "to be at home" in-wisan, irreg.; "absent/away from home" af-haimeis.
resin (amber) #gles, sn. (gen. #glezis).
resolution (resolve, determination, intent) muns, sm. (i-stem); (promise) ga-hait, sn.; (oath) aiths, sm. (gen. aithis); (agreement, accord, covenant) trausti, sn., triggwa, wf.
resolve (n.) (resolution, determination, intent) muns, sm. (i-stem).
resolve (v.) (INTR. form as image) ga-fri-sahtnan, wv. 4.
resound (crash, bang) *hlimman, sv. III.; (clang) klismjan, wv. 1.
respect (n.) (respect, obedience) uf-hauseins, sf; (honour, respect) *aiza, sf.; "in respect of, regarding" bi +dat., faur +acc.; "in this respect" in thizai halbai; "in every respect" in allamma, bi all.
respect (v.) (have regard for) aistan, ga-aistan, wv. 3.; (honour) sweran, wv. 3.; (heed, obey) uf-hausjan, wv. 1. +dat.; "respect/obey one's parents" bar-usnjan, wv. 1.; "respect as superior, rate better" faura-rahnjan, wv. 1.; "respecting/regarding" bi +dat., faur +acc.; "in this respect" in thizai halbai.
respectability (respectability) ga-riudi, sn.; (importance, worth) wairthida, sf.; (honour) sweritha, sf.
respectable (dignified, modest) ga-riuths (gen. ga-riudis); (important, significant) wulthrs; (important, powerful) reikeis; (esteemed) swers; (worthy) wairths; (decently dressed) *ga-fehs.
respectably (decent in appearance) ga-fehaba; (commendably, properly) ga-redaba; (worthily) wairthaba.
respite (n.) (rest, a break, relaxation) ga-hweilains, sf.; "give respite to" ana-hweilan, wv. 3.
resplendence wulthus, sm.
rest (n.) (resting, relaxation) ga-hweilains, sf.; (peace) rimis, sn. (gen. rimisis); "the rest, the others" antharai (pl. of anthar).
rest (v.) (pause) hweilan, ga-hweilan, wv. 3.; "give rest/respite" ana-hweilan, wv. 3.
restitution (recompense) anda-launi, sn.
restoration aftra-ana-stodeins, sf.
restore (mend, heal, restore to proper condition) aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1, aftra gabotjan, wv. 1.; "restore to health" hailjan, ga-hailjan, wv. 1. +gen., lekinon, wv. 2.; "save, heal" ga-nasjan, wv. 1.; (repay, show) us-giban, sv. V.
restrain (hamper, delay, check, hold up) latjan, ga-latjan, ana-latjan, wv. 1.; "restrain from" latjan, wv. 1. (dat. + inf.); (forbid, block, prevent) warjan, wv. 1.; (stop a flow, dam up) faur-dammjan, wv. 1.; "restrain oneself, hold back, avoid, refrain" ga-haban sik, wv. 3. - "from" af +dat.; (capture) fra-hinthan, us-hinthan, sv. III.; (imprison) ga-lagjan in karkarai, wv. 1.; (capture, take, keep) ga-haban, wv. 3.; "restrain oneself, exercise self-restraint" ga-haban sik, wv. 3.
restrained (discreet) *faurs (i-stem); (dignified, self-controlled) ana-wiljis; (captive) fra-hunthans.
restraint (FETTER) bandi, ga-binda, ga-bundi, kuna-wida, naudi-bandi, sf.; (of iron) eisarna-bandi, sf.; "irons" eisarna, sn.pl.; (CONSTRAINT, force, necessity, duress) nauths, sf. (gen. nauthais); (restriction) ga-aggwei, wf.; (violence, coersion) ana-mahts, sf.; (SELF-CONTROL) *ga-hobains, sf.; (calm, dignity, equanimity, self-possession) ana-wiljei, wf.; (control, guidance, self-control, steering) *stiurei, wf.; "exercise self-restraint" ga-haban sik, wv. 3.
restrict ga-aggwjan, wv. 1.
restriction ga-aggwei, wf.
result (n.) (deed, effect) taui, sn.; "as a result of, because of" in +gen.
resurrection ur-rists, us-stass, sf.
retain ga-haldan, sv. VII.; at sis ga-haban, wv. 3.
retard (v.) (delay, impede) latjan, ana-latjan, wv. 1.
retinue (military) drauhts, sf.
retribution (punishment, revenge) fra-weit, sn.
return (n.) qums aftra, sm. (i-stem).
return (v.) (GO/COME AGAIN/BACK) aftra ga-leithan, sv. I., aftra qiman, sv. IV.; (TURN/HEAD BACK) at-wandjan, wv. 1.; (REPENT, PHYSICALLY GO/TURN BACK, RETURN TO SOME PRACTISE, GIVE BACK, CAUSE TO COME BACK) ga-wandjan, wv. 1.; "he returned the 30 silver pennies to the priests" gawandida thans thins tiguns silubrineize gudjam; "he shall cause many of the sons of Israel to return to the Lord their God" managans suniwe Israelis gawandeid du fraujin guda ize; (RESTORE, mend, heal, return to former condition) aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1, aftra gabotjan, wv. 1.; "heal, return s-one to health" hailjan, ga-hailjan, wv. 1. +gen., lekinon, wv. 2.; (save, heal) ga-nasjan, wv. 1.; "be healed, RETURN TO HEALTH" ga-hailnan, wv. 4., waila wairthith (impersonal +dat.) - "they will get better" waila wairthith im; "be saved, returned to health" ga-nisan, sv. V.; (REPAY, show) us-giban, sv. V.
reveal (uncover) and-huljan, wv. 1.; (show) augjan, at-augjan, wv. 1., bairhtjan, ga-bairhtjan, wv I.; (divulge) us-qithan, wv. V.; (tell) ga-teihan, sv. I. (acc. of information, dat. of recipient); "the future will be revealed to you" thata anawairtho gateihith izwis; (report) spillon, wv. 2.; (tell, make manifest) ga-swikunthjan, wv. 1.; (tell everyone, defile, participate) ga-mainjan, ga-ga-mainjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (give away information) bandwjan, wv. 1. - "your accent gives you away" razda theina bandweith thuk; (bring to light, light up, shed light on) ga-liuhtjan, wv. 1.
revelation and-huleins, sf.
revelry ga-baur, sm.
revenge (punishment, revenge) fra-weit, sn.
revere (respect) aistan, ga-aistan, wv. 3.; (fear, be in awe of) *ogan, pp. - og, *ogum, ohta.
reverence (worship) blotan, sv. VII.; (greet) in-weitan, sv. I. +acc.; (respect) aistan, ga-aistan, wv. 3.
reverend (title of priest) papa, sm. - "Father/Reverend Wereka" Wereka papa.
revile (hate) fijan, wv. 3, hatan, wv. 3, hatjan, wv. 1.; (insult) lauan, sv. VII. +dat. - lailo, lauans; (reproach, blame) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.
revise (correct further, set straight) at-ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.
revive (bring to life) ga-qiujan, wv. 1.; (come to life) ga-qiunan, wv. 4.; (bring back to life) *afar-ga-qiujan, wv. 1.; (come back to life) *afar-ga-qiunan, wv. 4.
revolution (overthrow) us-walteins, sf.
reward (n.) (reward, payment, wage) laun, anda-launi, sn., mizdo, wf.; "reward of victory" sigis-laun.
reward (v.) (pay, repay) us-gildan, sv. III.; (repay, pay up, show) us-giban, sv. V.
rib •ribi, sn.
ribaldry saldra, sf.
rich gabeigs, gabigs; "get rich" gabignan, wv. 4.; "make rich" gabigjan, wv.I.; "be rich" ufarassu haban, wv. 3., in ufarassau wisan, irreg.; "the rich" thai in ufarassau wisandans.
riches gabei, wf., faihu-thraihn(s), ?sm. ?sn.; (wealth, cattle) faihu, sn.; (money, coin) skatts, sm.; (mammon) mammona, wm.; (plenty) ufarassus, sm.
richly ga-bigaba.
ride (v.) *reidan, sv. I. (+dat. in ON; on +dat. in OE, usually, but also just dat.: ridan ytha hrycgum).
ridicule bi-hlahjan, sv. VI, bi-laikan, sv. VII., •skairnjan, bi-mampjan, wv. 1.
right (adj.) (CORRECT, STRAIGHT) raihts; (TRUE) sunjis, sunjeins; (JUST, right, fair, RIGHTEOUS) us-waurhts, ga-raihts; (WELL, correct, rightly) waila; "were we not right to say that...?" niu waila qitham weis thatei...?; (APPROPRIATE) ga-dofs (i-stem, gen. ga-dobis); (PROPERLY, advisedly) ga-redaba; (decent) *ga-fehs; (properly, respectably) ga-fehaba; (appropriately) ga-temiba, ga-tilaba; "PUT RIGHT, correct" ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.; (RIGHT/LAWFUL TO DO) "it is right to" skuld ist (+inf.); "it is not right/lawful" ni skuld ist" (+inf.).
right (hand) (OPPOSITE OF LEFT) taihswa, w.adj.; "RIGHT HAND, the right" taihswo, wf.; "if anyone hits you on the right cheek" jabai hwas thuk stautai bi taiwswon theina kinnu; "he chopped off his right ear" afsloh imma auso thata taihswo; "on [the/his/her/my. etc.] left side" af hleidumein/taihswon ferai; "standing to the right of the altar" standands af taihswon hunslastadis; "he sat at God's right hand" af taihswon gudis.
right (n.) (justice, righteousness) ga-raihtei, wf., ga-raihtitha, sf.
righteous ga-raihts, us-waurhts.
righteousness (justice) ga-raihtei, wf.; (correction) ga-raihteins, sf.
rightly (CORRECTLY, properly) raihtaba; (correctly, justly) ga-raihtaba; (WELL, excellently, kindly) waila; (RESPECTABLY) ga-fehaba; (commendably, properly) ga-redaba; (APPROPRIATELY) ga-temiba, ga-tilaba; (suitably, worthily) wairthaba; (ACTUALLY, in fact, namely) raihtis; (TRULY) sunjaba.
rigid (hard) hardus; (harsh, strict) *hwass; (narrow) aggwus; "go rigid" ga-staurknan, wv. 4.
rigidly (harshly, severely) harduba, hardaba; (strictly, harshly, sharply) hwassaba.
rill rinno, wf.
ring figgra-gulth, sn, •hriggs, sm. (Crim. rinck/ringo; Church Slav. useregz 'earring').
riotously us-stiuriba.
riotousness us-stiurei, wf.
rim (edge, shield rim) •randa, sf., •targo, wf.
rip (n.) ga-taura, wm.
rip (v.) tahjan, wv. 1., *tairan, wv. 4.; (tear up/apart/to pieces) dis-skreitan, sv. I, dis-tairan, ga-tairan, sv. IV.
ripen (mature, fruit) ga-wrisqan, sv. III.
rise (v.) reisan, ur-reisan, sv. I.; (mount, climb) steigan, sv. I.; (rise, go forth/out from, spring up) ur-rinnan, sv. III.; (quickly, shoot upwards) us-hlaupan, sv. VII.; (stand up, rise, come out/from) us-standan, sv. VI.
rising (n.) (rising up, resurrection) ur-rists, us-stass, sf.; (sunrise, the east, drain/sewer/toilet) ur-runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. ur-runsis).
river ahwa, sf.; •baks, m. (i-stem); (stream) rinno, sf.; "the [River] Jordan" Iaurdane ahwa (No definite article, unlike Greek or English - but any qualifying adjective would probably be definite, cf. fairguni alewjo 'Mount of Olives').
rivulet rinno, wf.
road gagg, sn., staiga, sf., wigs, sm.; "on/onto the road" ana wiga; (footprint, tracks, trail, step) laists, sm., (i-stem); (ROUGH TRACK) us-drusts, sf.; "on the way" in wiga; "go on one's way" usgaggan in wig; (TRAIL, path, footprint, tracks, step, ?objective/intention) laists, sm. (i-stem); (a rough track) us-drusts, sf.; (STREET) gatwo, wf., *platja, ga-runs, sf. (gen. ga-runsais), faura-dauri, sn.
roast •brason, wv. 2.
rob bi-raubon, wv. 2. (acc. of victim; thing stolen not attested, but ?gen. as in OHG), wilwan, dis-wilwan, sv. III.; (deprive) ga-tarnjan, wv. 1.
robber wilwa, sm.
robbery wulwa, sf.
robe (coat, cloak) snaga, wm.
rock (n.) stains, sm.
rock (v.) (TRANS.) (move, shake, wag) wagjan, wv. 1.; (shake, perturb) af-swaggwjan, wv. 1.; (shake, stir) ga-wagjan, wv. 1.; (INTR.) (tremble, shake) reiran, wv. 3.; (begin to shake) in-reiran, wv. 3.; (make tremble) af-swaggwjan, wv. 1.
rod hrugga, sf., wandus, sm., triu, sn., •roda, sf.
roll (TRANS.) walwjan, wv. 1.; "roll away" af-walwjan, wv. 1.; "roll to" at-walwjan, wv. 1.; "cover by rolling s-thing in front of" faur-walwjan, wv. 1. +dat. for thing rolled & acc. for thing covered (the other walwjan verbs have acc. for thing rolled + dative for any beneficiary); (roll, roll over, capsise) *wiltan, sv. III.; (INTR.) (rock, turn over, capsise) waltjan, wv. 1.; (roll, tumble) *wiltan, sv. III.; "roll around on the floor" walwison, wv. 2.
Romans Rumoneis, sm.pl.
Rome Ruma, sf.
roof hrot, sn.
room (room, space) rums, sm.; "there wasn't any room for them" ni was im rumis; (chamber) hethjo, wf.; (upper room) kelikn, sn.; (lodgings, mansion, dwelling) salithwos, sf.pl.
room, to find ga-motan, pp. - ga-mot, ga-motum, ga-mosta.
root waurts, sf.
rooted ga-waurts.
rootless us-wiss.
rootlessness (detachment, separateness) us-wissi, sn.
rope *sail, sn., *wida, sf.; (fetter, rope for tying prisoner) kuna-wida, sf.
rot (n.) "rot, ruin, corruption, transience" riurei, wf.; "mould" •mudw, sn.
rot (v.) (INTR.) fra-wairthan, sv. III.; "to go mouldy" •mugan, wv. 3.; (TRANS. "ruin, spoil") fra-wardjan, wv. 1.; riurjan, wv. 1.
rotten (perishable, rotten, spoilt) riureis; "mouldy" •mudweins; "go rotten, become corrupt/spoilt" riureis wairthan, sv. III.
rough *un-sutis; (unkind) un-mildeis; (violent) slahals; (ferociously violent) un-mana-riggws; "rough situation" un-suti, sn.; (uncertain) un-wiss.
roughly (approximately) swe.
round (PREP: around, round, near) bi +acc.; "around, surrounding, round about" bi-sunjane; "round about, approximately" swe; "round his waist/loins" bi hup seinana.
rouse (WAKE UP someone) us-wakjan, wv. 1.; (wake, raise) ur-raisjan, wv. 1.; (bring round) us-skaujan, wv. 1.; (be roused from sleep) ga-waknan, wv. 4.; (come to, regain consciousness) us-skaujan sik. (also with passive: "to recover oneself"); (TO STIR UP EMOTION) (anger, provoke) gramjan, in-gramjan, wv. 1.; (stir up, excite - e.g. a crowd) us-wagjan, wv. 1.; (agitate, stir up, disturb) drobjan, wv. 1.; (move inwardly, stir, arouse passion/emotion) in-wagjan, wv. 1.; "be roused to emotion/pity" in-wagjan sik, in-rauhtjan, wv. 1.; (be roused to compassion) in-feinan, wv. 4.
route *rannjan, wv. 1. (+dat.? cf. ON renna).
router (r)rannja, wm.
row (v.) (travel by boat) farjan, wv. 1.
rowdiness us-stiurei, wf.
rowdy (riotous) *us-stiurs (i-stem); (disobedient) un-ga-hwairbs.
rub bnauan, sv. VII.? (as originally), or wv. III. (like bauan & trauan); (wipe) swairban, sv. III.; "rub out" af-swairban, sv. III.; (smear) bi-smeitan, ga-smeitan, sv. I. (dat. of pers. smeared, acc. of body part smeared & substance), BUT: "he smeared mud in his eyes" gasmait ana imma thata fani.
rubbish (excrement, rubbish) smarnos, sf.pl.; (reject, abortion) us-waurpa, sf.
rude language aglaiti-waurdei, wf.
rude speech aglaiti-waurdei, wf.
rude aglait(i)-
rudeness aglaiti, sn.
rue (v.) idreigon, wv. 2.
rueful *idreigs.
ruefulness (remorse, repentance) idreiga, sf.
Rugian (a Rugian man) #Rugjis, sm.
ruin (n.) (annihilation, doom) qisteins, sf.; (tearing down, demolition, destruction in general) ga-taurths, sf.; (wastage, spoiling) *fra-qisteins, sf.; (dispersal, scattering, shredding, diaspora) dis-taheins, sf.; (end of existence) dis-wiss, sf.; (dissolution, end, melting away) ga-malteins, sf. (corrupting, degeneration) fra-wardeins, sf.; (corrosion, disintegration, transience, rot) riurei, wf.
ruin (v.) (spoil) fra-wardjan, riurjan, wv. 1.; (demolish, destroy) ga-tairan, wv. 4.; (destroy) qistjan, fra-qistjan, us-qistjan, wv. 1. +dat. or +acc.
rule (n.) (reign, power, empire) reiki, sn.; "by the rules" witodeigo.
rule (v.) fraujinon +dat., ga-fraujinon +dat., raginon +dat., reikinon, wv. 2. +dat., waldan +dat., ga-waldan, sv. VII. +dat., faura-standan, sv. V.; thiudanon, wv. 2. - "over" ufar +dat.
ruler reiks, fraujinonds, m., faura-mathleis, faur-stasseis, sm.; (GOVERNOR) kindins, sm.; (COUNCELLOR, GOVERNOR) ragineis, sm.; (KING) thiudans, (EMPEROR) kaisar, sm.; (LORD, MASTER) frauja; (MASTER) *waldands, (in compounds: MASTER) -faths, sm. (i-stem, gen. -fadis); synagoga-faths, sm. (i-stem, gen. fadis).
rumour (rumour, fame) meritha, sf.
run (n.) (course, flow, issue of fluid) runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. runsis).
run (v.) rinnan, sv. III., thragjan, wv. 1.; "run up to" du-rinnan, du-at-rinnan, sv. III.; "run on ahead" bi-thragjan faur, wv. 1.; "run together" ga-rinnan, sv. III.; "run away" af-thliuhan, sv. II.; "run about" bi-rinnan, sv. III.
rune (rune, secret, mystery) runa, sf.; (runic character, rune-stave) *runa-stafs, sm. (i-stem, gen. *runa-stabis).
runnel (stream) rinno, wf.
running (n.) (course, rush, flow, issue of fluid) runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. runsis).
rush (n.) (reed) raus, sn. (gen. rausis); (sudden move, course, flow, issue of fluid) runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. runsis).
rush (v.) sniwan, sv. V., sniumjan, ga-sniumjan, wv. 1., •hrapon, wv. 2.; "but God's wrath will rush upon them" aththan snauh ana ins hatis gudis; (run, hasten) rinnan, sv. III.; (rush/hasten towards) du-at-sniwan, sv. V.; "to rush violently" run ga-waurkjan sis - ga-waurhta, ga-waurhts; (rush past, rush on ahead, precede) faur-bi-sniwan, sv. V.; "rush on ahead of, precede" bi-sniwan faur, sv. V. +acc.
rust nidwa, sf.
rustle (n.) *swogs, sm. (i-stem).
rustle (v.) *swogan, *hruskan, wv. 3.
rye •rugs, sm. (i-stem) (cf. #Hulma-rugjos & Finn. ruis).
sabbath sabbato (indeclinable); sabbatus (pl. fluctuates between i- & u- declensions).
sabbath-eve fruma sabbato (indeclinable).
sackcloth sakkus, sm.
sacred airkns, weihs, hailags.
sacrifice (n.) hunsl, tibr, sn., ala-brunsts, sf, sauths, sm. (i-stem, gen. saudis).
sacrifice (v.) hunsljan, saljan, wv. 1.
sad (sad, sullen) gaurs; (woeful, wretched, sad, pathetic) wainahs; (unhappy, discontented) un-wunands; "to be(come) sad" ga-hnipnan, wv. 4.; (mourn) gaunon, wv. 2.; (weep) gretan, sv. VII.; (weep and mourn) hiufan, sv. II., qainon, wv. 2.; (sorrow) saurgan, wv. 3.; (be upset/agitated) ga-drobnan, wv. 4.; (become upset) in-drobnan, wv, IV.
sadden (sadden, grieve) *trigan, sv. V.
sadness gauritha, saurga, sf., gaunothus, sm., gaurei, wf.; (pain, grief) sair, sn.; (sadness, regret) trigo, wf.
safe (adj.) (secure) *thwasts; (safe, sound, healthy) hails.
safe (n.) (strong-box) arka, sf.
safekeeping *ga-freideins, sf.; (take into safekeeping, keep safe) *ga-freisjan, wv. 1.
safely (securely) arniba.
safety thwastitha, sf.
sagacious froths (gen. frodis), snutrs, weis; (wise, clever) handugs; (wise, sober) in-ahs.
sagacity frodei, snutrei, handugei, wf.; (reason, discresion) ga-frathjei, wf.
sail (v.) (travel by boat) farjan, wv. 1.
sake "for the sake of" (on behalf of) fram +dat.; (on account of) bi +dat., in +gen., du lewa +gen. - "for the sake of the flesh" du lewa leikis; "pray for the sake of" bidjan bi, sv. V. +acc.; "I beg you, for God's sake" biswara thuk bi guda.
salary (pay, reward) laun, sn.; (worker's pay) *asno, wf.; (soldier's pay) anno, wf.
saliva spaiskuldr, sn.
salt (n.) salt, sn.
salt (v.) (add salt to) saltan, sv. VII.
salted *saltans.
salutation goleins, sf.
salute (greet) goljan, wv. 1.; (reverence, worship, greet) in-weitan, sv. I. +acc.
salute (greeting, salutation) goleins, sf.
salvation (saving, healing) ga-nists, naseins, sf.; (redemption) faur-bauhts, us-luneins, sf.
salve (n.) (ointment) salbons, sf., balsan, sn.
same sama (pr. & w.adj.); "the same" thata samo; "one and the same" ain jah thata samo; "the same (things) tho samona; (identical) ibna-leiks, sama-leiks; "in the same way" ana-leiko, ga-leiko, sama-leiko; "the same size" sama-lauths (gen. -laudis); "of the same mind" aina-munds, sama-frathjis, sama-saiwals; "at the same time" bijands; "and at the same time" bijandz-uth-than.
sample (v.) (test, taste, prove) kausjan, wv. 1. (+gen. = "taste", +acc. = "test, etc.").
sanctify weihan, ga-weihan, wv. 3.
sanctity weihitha, sf.; (holyness, sincerity) airknitha, sf.
sanctuary *weih, sn.
sand malma, wm.; (sand, grit, gravel) #griut, sn.
sandal (sandal, sole of shoe) suljo, wf.
sane "to be quite sane" fulla-frathjan, sv. VI.; "be sane/reasonable" waila frathjan, sv. VI.
Sanhedrin ga-faurds, sf.
Satan Satana, Satanas.
satirise (ridicule) bi-hlahjan, sv. VI, bi-laikan, sv. VII., bi-mampjan, •skairnjan, wv. 1.; (heckle) •hakiljan, wv. 1.
satisfaction soth, sn.; (sufficiency, contentment) ga-nauha, wm.; (enjoyment) *ga-wizns, sf.
satisfied (content, full) saths (gen. sadis); (happy) ga-wizneigs.
satisfy (satisfy, fill) ga-sothjan, wv. 1. (gen. or dat. of thing that satisfies +acc. of person satisfied); (meet requirements) ga-nohjan, wv. 1.; (serve well, please) fulla-fahjan, wv. 1.; (suffice) ga-nauhan, pp. - ga-nah, ga-nauhum, ga-nauhta.
Saturday •sambatodags; "sabbath" sabbato dags (indeclinable); sabbatus dags (pl. fluctuates between i- & u- declensions).
save (prep.) (except) alja; (without) inu/inuh +acc.; (except, over/beyond) ufar +acc.
save (v.) (save) nasjan, wv. 1.; (save, heal) ga-nasjan, wv. 1.; (save, protect, preserve, shelter) bairgan, sv. III. +dat.; "both are saved, both survive" bajothum bairgada (impersonal passive, cf. ON e-m er borgit); "be saved, be healed, attain salvation" ga-nisan, sv. V.
saviour nasjands, m.
savour (n.) dauns, sf.
savour (v.) (taste) at-snarpjan, wv. 1.; (taste, test) kausjan, wv. 1. (+gen. = "taste", +acc. = "test, etc.").
say (v.) qithan, sv. V.; "to" +dat., or du +dat.; "they say there is no resurrection" qithand usstass ni wisan; "say grace, offer thanks" awiliudon, wv. 2.; "say, for instance, namely" raihtis; "as I said before" swe ju faura-qath.
saying (n.) (proverb, fable) ga-juko, wf.; (something said) *qiss, sf.
scab (n.) (scabbiness, scurf) •hrufs, sm.
scabbard fodr, sn.
scabies (itch, mange) •rappa, sf.
scald •brojan, wv. 1.
scarcely *halis; "scarcely ever" halis-aiw.
scare thlahsjan, ogjan, us-agjan; (scare off) af-agjan, wv. 1.; (scare out of one's wits) us-gaisjan, wv. 1.
scared faurhts, *agands, *us-agiths; "to be scared" ga-thlahsnan, wv. 4.; "to be scared out of one's wits" us-geisnan, wv. 4.
scary ogjands, agjands, thlahsjands, us-gaisjands; (fierce, fearsome) *in-grimjis; (unholy, unfriendly, sinister, demonic) *un-hulths.
scatter (disperse, shred, scatter) dis-tahjan, wv. 1.; (scatter like chaff, "scatter to the four winds") dis-winthjan, wv. 1.; (strew) straujan +dat., ga-straujan (*dat.), uf-straujan, wv. 1. +dat.; (scatter over, sprinkle, strew) ufar-trusnjan, wv. 1. (dat. of thing thrown).
scheming (n.) bi-runains, sf.
schism missa-qiss, sf.; "schisms, factions, heresy" hairaiseis, sf.pl.
schismatic (n.) missa-qissa, wm.
scoff at bi-mampjan, wv. 1.
scold (v.) ana-haitan, sv. VII +dat., ga-sakan, sv. VI. +dat. or +acc.; (rebuke, argue with) sakan; (threaten, accuse) hwotjan, ga-hwotjan, wv. 1.; (reproach, blame) id-weitjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (blame, reproach, threaten, accuse) and-beitan, sv. I. +acc.
scoop out us-graban, sv. VI.
scorch (INTR.) (get scorched) uf-brinnan, sv. III.
score (v.) (incise) *wreitan, sv. I.
scorn (mock) bi-hlahjan, sv. VI, bi-laikan, sv. VII., bi-mampjan, wv. 1.; (insult) lauan, sv. VII. +dat., ga-naitjan, wv. 1.; (scorn, despise, reject) fra-kunnan, pp. - fra-kann, fra-kunnum, fra-kuntha +dat., or: at +dat.; (rebuff) uf-brikan, sv. IV. +dat.; "spit at, despise, reject" and-speiwan, sv. I.
scorpion skaurpjo, wf.
scourge bliggwan, us-bliggwan, sv. III.
scout (n.) •skulka, wm.; (scout, spy) •spaiha, wm.
scout out (visit, inspect, spy out) bi-niuhsjan, wv. 1.
scrap (n.) (excrement, rubbish) smarnos, sf.pl.; "scrap of cloth, rag" fana, sm., •fata, sf., •laska, sf., plats, sm.; (fight) dispute, fight, prize-fight) jiuka, sf.
scrape "scrape out" us-graban, sv. VI.; "scrape together, heap/hoard up" rikan, sv. V.
scrapping (n.) (strife, fighting, violence) haifsts, sf.; (struggle, strife) brakja, sf., sakjo, waihjo, wf.
scratch (v.) •kratton, wv. 2., •razzjan, wv. 1., •raspon, wv. 2.; (incise, score, write) *wreitan, sv. I.
scream (n.) (shout) drunjus, sm.; (blare, screech, trumpet blast) *thuts, sm. (i-stem); (screaming, shouting, outcry) hrops, sm.
scream (v.) (shout, scream, cry out) hropjan, uf-hropjan, wopjan, at-wopjan, uf-wopjan, wv. 1., auhjon, wv. 2.; (blare, screech, make trumpet noise) *thiutan, sv. II.; (screech, shriek) •kreitan, sv. I.
screaming (n.) (clamour, outcry) hrops, sm.
screech (v.) kreitan, sv. I.; (screech like owl, blare like trumpet) thiutan, sv. II.
scribe bokareis, sm.
scripture(s) mela, ga-meleins, sf., thata gamelido, wn., bokos (pl. of boka, sf., 'letter of alphabet'), mela, (pl. of 'mel', sn.)
scrunch (handle, scrunch up) at-snarpjan, wv. 1.
scruple "have worries/scruples" and-sitan, sv. V.
sculptor (molder of clay) digands, sm.
sculpture (molded figure, clay model) ga-digis, sn.
scurf •hrufs, sm.
scythe (sickle) giltha, sf.
Scythian Skythus, sm.
sea marei, wf., mari-saiws, sm. (i-stem); "on/along the seashore" faur marein, withra marein ana statha.
seal (n.) (for stamping) sigljo, wn.
seal (v.) (seal, seal shut) sigljan, faur-sigljan, wv. 1.
search (n.) sokns, sf.
sear (v.) (burn, brand) ga-tandjan, wv. 1.
search (v.) (seek, look for, try to) sokjan, ga-sokjan, wv. 1.
searcher *sokja, wm.
seaside (shore, bank, landing place) staths (gen. stathis); "on the seashore" faur marein, withra marein ana statha.
season (n.) (Modern sense: period of the year) athn, sn.; (Biblical sense: a particular time, the right time/season) mel, sn.
season (v.) supon, ga-supon, wv. 1.
seasonably (on time, opportunely, at the right time) uhteiho.
seat (seat, perch, nest) sitls, sm.; (chair, throne) stols, sm.
second anthar.
secrecy ana-laugnei, wf.
secret (adj.) (hidden) ana-laugns (i-stem), fulgins; (secret, occult) •darneis; (stealthy) *thiubjis; "make secret, conceal" •darnjan, wv. 1.
secret (n.) fulhsni, sn.; (mystery) runa, sf.
secretive *thiubeis.
secretively thiubjo.
secretly (in secret) ana-laugniba, in fulhsnja; (stealthily) thiubjo.
sectarianism (discord, factionalism) twis-stass, sf.
section (part) dails, sf.; (fragment) ga-bruka, sf.; (section of land, area) gawi, sn., fera, sf.
sector (region) gawi, sn., fera, sf.; (part, share, fragment) dails, sf.; (share) hlauts, sm.
secure (adj.) (well guarded) *arns (i-stem); (safe, firm) *thwasts.
secure (v.) (make firm, safe & secure) thwastjan, wv. 1.; (stabilise, fortify, fix) tulgjan, wv. 1.; (get hold of, keep, seize) ga-haban, wv. 3.
securely arniba.
security (safety, firmness) thwastitha, sf.; (bond, warrenty, credit contract) kautsjo, wf.
seduce (incite, entice, persuade) ga-hwatjan, wv. 1.; (lead astray) uf-airzjan, wv. 1.
seducer airzjands, m.
seduction *us-wandeins, sf.
see (see, look at, observe, regard) saihwan, ga-saihwan, sv. III.; "saw clearly" sahw bairhtaba; "to see naked, etc." saihwan naqadana +acc.; (look right at) in-saihwan; "seeing Peter warming himself, she looked straight at him and said" gasaihwandei Paitru warmjandan sik, insaihwandei du imma qath; (look at, look around at) bi-saihwan, sv. V.; (look at, heed) at-saihwan; (see through, look in [mirror]) thairh-saihwan, sv.V.; (perceive) gaumjan, wv. 1. +dat., ga-saihwan, sv. V.; (look up; start to see after being blind) us-saihwan, sv. V.; "see!, behold!" sai!; "seeing as, given that..." thande.
seed fraiw, sn. (collective sg.) - "sow seed" fraiwa saian (=dat., cf. ON); (figurative) *seths, sf. (gen. sedais) in compound mana-seths 'mankind, people'.
seek sokjan, wv. 1.; (ask, seek, enquire, find out, learn by enquiry) ga-fraihnan, sv. V. (gen. of thing, acc. of person asked).
seem thugkjan wv. 1. (thuhta, thuhts) - "it seems to me" thugkeith mis.
seeming (n.) (semblance, conscience) thuhtus, sm.
seemingly "superficially, by external appearances" bi siunai.
seethe (boil, seethe, bubble over with enthusiasm) wulan, sv. IV.; (seethe with passion, burn up inside) in-tundnan, wv. 4.
seize (PHYSICALLY) fahan, ga-fahan, sv. VII, greipan, fair-greipan, sv. I.; (imprison) fra-hinthan, us-hinthan, sv. III.; (take, have, hold) haban, ga-haban wv. 3.; (trap, net, catch out) ga-niutan, sv. II.; (seize, plunder) wilwan, sv. III.; (EMOTIONALLY) dis-sitan, sv. V., dis-haban, wv. 3.; "they were seized by a great fear" agisa mikilamma habaida wesun; (FEVER, DEMONIC POSSESSION, etc.) ana-haban, wv. 3.
select (choose) ga-waljan, wv. 1.; (pick out, test, prove) us-kiusan, sv. II. +acc.
selection (election, chosing) ga-walweins, sf.
self silba, wm., silbo, wf./wn.; "I myself" ik silba/silbo; (yourself) thu silba; "yourself, of your own accord" af thus silbin; (THE SELF, soul, inner being, individual life, earthly existence) saiwala, sf.; "look out only for oneself, act selfishly" sein ain sokjan, wv. 1.; "seek glory for one's self" hauhitha seina sokjan, wv. 1.
self-confidence (basis, substance, self-confidence) stoma, sm.
self-control *ga-hobains, sf.; (calm, dignity, equanimity, self-possession) ana-wiljei, wf.; "having self-control, calm/dignified" ana-wiljis; "lack of self-control" un-ga-hobains, sf.; "lacking self-control" un-ga-habands sik, wv. 3.
selfish seina-gairns.
selfishly "act selfishly, be only interested in oneself, seek gain only for oneself" sein ain sokjan, wv. 1.
sell kaupon, wv. 2.; fra-bugjan, wv. 1 (+acc. of commodity) - fra-bauhta, fra-bauhts; "for" in (+acc. of amount); "because it would be possible to sell it for more than three hundred pennies" maht wesi auk frabugjan in manazizo thau thija hunda skatte.
semblance (likeness) ga-leiki, sn.; (thought, seeming, conscience) thuhtus, sm.
send sandjan, sv. I.; "send forth/out/off" in-sandjan, us-sandjan, wv. 1.; "send/drive away" us-dreiban, sv. I. +dat. or +acc.
senior *siniza; "senior servant" •sini-skalks, sm.; "most senior, eldest, an elder" sinista.
sense (n.) (good sense, reasonableness) ga-frathjei, wf.; (sobriety, self-possession) in-ahei, wf.; (good sense, understanding) *witi, sn.; (wisdom) frodei, snutrei, handugei, wf.; "have some sense, be reasonable" waila frathjan, sv. VI.; "sense of hearing" hliuma, wm.; "sense of sight" siuns, sf.; "sense of smell, a smell" dauns, sf.
sense (v.) (perceive) gaumjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (understand) frathjan, sv. VI. +dat.; (BECOME AWARE OF, know) uf-kunnan, irreg. (present as wv. 3., pret. almost always strong: uf-kuntha, but one example each of weak pret. and past part.: uf-kunnaida, uf-kunnaidai).
sensible (reasonable) *ga-frathjis; (thoughtful, consciencious) anda-thahts; (alert, mindful, sober) in-ahs; (alert, sober) un-skaus; "be sensible/reasonable" waila frathjan, sv. VI.
sentinel (guard) wardja, wm.
separate (TRANS., INTR., separate, divide, depart) skaidan, sv. VII. +dat. or +acc. - "let no man separate it" manna thamma ni skaidai; "let not the wife separate from her husband" qenai fairra abin ni skaidan; "to split/divide a man from/against his father" skaidan mannan withra attan; (depart) skaidan sik, sv. VII.; (INTR.) "part, separate" ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.; (divorce) af-satjan, wv. 1.; (isolate) ga-ainan, wv. 3.; (INTR.) ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.
separately (apart, alone, privately) sundro.
separateness us-wissi, sn.
separation (distinction, difference) ga-skaideins, sf.; (divorce) af-sateins, af-stass, sf.
separated, to get ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.
sepulchre (tomb, grave) ?aurahi, sf. (or ?aurahjo, wf.), *nawistr, sn., hlaiw, sn. (sg. only), hlaiwasna, sf. (pl. only).
sequence tewa, sf.; "in sequence, in order, connectedly" ga-hahjo; "in their right sequence" in seinai tewai.
series tewa, sf.; "in series, in order, connectedly" ga-hahjo; "in their right order" in seinai tewai.
serious (important, significant, of worth, mattering) wulthrs; (thoughtful, consciencious) anda-thahts; (sober, alert, mindful, sensible) in-ahs; (rational) *ga-frathjis; (alert, sober) un-skaus; (sad) gaurs; (sacred, respectful of sanctity) weihs; (zealous, earnest, persistent) us-dauths (gen. us-daudis).
seriously (zelously, earnestly, with a will) us-daudo; (sensibly) *in-aho, *un-skausaba; (earnestly, sacredly, in a holy/respectful way) weihaba.
seriousness (sobriety, self-possession) in-ahei, wf.; (sense, reasonableness) ga-frathjei, wf.; (magnitude, geatness) mikilei, wf.; (sadness) gauritha, sf.
serpent waurms, sm.
servant skalks, thius, and-bahts, sm., (hireling/hired-servant) asneis, sm.; (male) thiu-magus, sm.; (female) thiwi, *thiwairna, sf.; "fellow servant" ga-skalki, sn.; (collective) "servants" thewis, sn.
serve (OF PERSON: act as servant for) skalkinon, wv. 2. +dat.; (serve, serve guests, minister to) and-bahtjan, wv, I. +dat. - "didn't come to be served, but to serve" ni qam at andbahtjam ak andbahtjan (andbahtjam = dat.pl. of andbahti, sn. 'service'); (serve well, please, satisfy) fulla-fahjan, wv. 1.; "SERVE AS SOLDIER" driugan, sv. II., drauhtinon, wv. 2. +dat., militon, wv. 2. (*dat.); (SERVE DRINK to, give to drink) #skagkjan, wv. 1. (?dat. of person, acc. of drink), dragkjan, ga-dragkjan, wv. 1. (acc. of person, dat. of drink); (OF THING: serve a purpose, be useful, be any good) botjan, wv. 1., dugan, pp. - daug, dugum, dauhta; "fighting over words SERVES NO USEFUL PURPOSE" waurdam weihan du ni waihtai daug.
service and-bahti, sn.; (servitude, worship) skalkinassus; (worship) blotinassus; "military service/discipline/campaign" drauhti-witoth, sn. (gen. drauhti-witodis).
serviceman (soldier) ga-drauhts, sm. (i-stem), militonds, m.
servitude skalkinassus, sm., thiwadw, sn.
set (adj.) (fixed, appointed, allotted) ga-raiths (gen. ga-raidis).
set (v.) satjan, ga-satjan, lagjan, wv. 1.; "set/put down" ga-lagjan, wv. 1.; "set free" lausjan, wv. 1., fra-letan, sv. VII.; "set round something" bi-satjan, wv. 1.; "set up, erect" raisjan, wv. 1.; "set up with stakes" (e.g. a tent) stakjan, wv. 1.; "set up, establish" ga-satjan, wv. 1.; "establish peace on earth" gawairthi lagjan ana airtha; "set fire to" lagjan fon ana, wv. 1. (+dat).
settle (set up town, camp) *bi-baurgjan, wv. 1.
settlement (of dwellings) bi-baurgeins, sf.
seven sibun.
seventy sibuntehund.
sever (cut off) af-maitan, sv. VII.; (cut off) af-slahan, sv. VI. - "he cut off his right ear" afsloh imma auso thata taihswo; (cut off, kill) af-sneithan, sv. I.; (TRANS., INTR., split, depart) skaidan, sv. VII. +dat. - "let no man sever" manna thamma ni skaidai; (INTR.) "part, separate" ga-skaidnan, wv. 4.
severe (extreme) abrs; (strict, sharp) *hwass; (hard) hardus.
severely (harshly) harduba, hardaba, (extemely, very) abraba; (strictly, harshly, sharply) hwassaba.
severity hwassei, wf.
sew siujan, wv. 1.
sewer (toilet/sewer, sunrise) ur-runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. ur-runsis).
sex (enjoyment of, passion) gairuni, sn.; (intercourse) ga-ligri, sn.; (bed, intercourse) ligrs, sm.; (yearning, lust) winno, wf., winna, sf.; (illicit sex, adultery) horinassus, wm.; (illicit sex, whoring) kalkinassus, sm.; "have sex" *ga-ligan, sv. V.; "have illicit sex, fornicate, commit adultery with" *kalkinon, horinon, ga-horinon, wv. 2. +dat.
shack (n.) •bawitha, sf.
shackle (bond, fetter) bandi, ga-binda, ga-bundi, kuna-wida, naudi-bandi, sf.; (of iron) eisarna-bandi, sf.; (on feet) fotu-bandi, sf., ana fotum eisarna, eisarna bi fotuns gabugana.
shade (n.) (shadow) skadus, sm.; (shelter, arbour, covered walkway, booth/hut) •laubjo, wf.
shade (v.) (overshadow) ufar-skadwjan, wv. 1. +dat. or +acc.
shadow (n.) skadus, sm.
shadow (v.) (cast a shadow) *skadwjan, wv. 1.; (overshadow) ufar-skadwjan, wv. 1. +dat. or +acc.
shaft (of spear) #skafts, sm.
shake (TRANS.) (move, shake) wagjan, wv. 1.; (shake, stir) ga-wagjan, wv. 1.; (wag, shake) withon, wv. 2. - "shaking their heads" withondans haubida seina; (make tremble/sway) af-swaggwjan, wv. 1.; "shake off" af-hrisjan, wv. 1.; "shake down off" (fruit) ga-wigan, sv. V., us-hrisjan, wv. 1.; (INTR.) wagjan sik, wv. 1. ; (tremble) reiran, wv. 3., •skudon, wv. 2.; "start shaking/trembling" in-reiran, wv. 3.; "SHAKE HANDS" taihswon at-giban, sv. V. "with" +dat.
shaking (n.) (trembling) reiro, wf.
shall (shall, must, owe, be obliged) skulan, pp. - skal, skulum, skulda; (Future tense) du-ginnan, sv. III., haban, wv. 3., skulan, pp. - skal, skulum, skulda (...but future mostly not distinguished from present); "what I do now, I shall continue to do in the future" hwa tauja, taujan haba; "what should I do?" hwa taujau?
shame (n.) aiwiski, sn., skanda, *skama, sf.; (dishonour, disgrace) un-swerei, wf.; "feel shame" skaman sik, wv. 3. "about/for/towards" +gen.; "treat with shame, treat shamefully" aiwiskon, ga-aiwiskon, wv. 2.
shame (v.) (humiliate) ga-haunjan, wv. 1.
shameful agls, *aiwisks.
shamefully "treat shamefully" aiwiskon, ga-aiwiskon, wv. 2.
shape (n.) (shape, physical proportions) laudi, sf.; (appearance) hiwi, sn., farw, ?sn.; (likeness) ga-leiki, sn.
shape (v.) (form, create) skapjan, ga-skapjan, sv. VI.; (mould) deigan, sv. I.
shard skarda, sf.; (fragment) ga-bruka, sf.
share (n.) dails, sf., hlauts, sm.
share (v.) dailjan, dis-dailjan, fra-dailjan, wv. 1.; (mete out, apportion) ga-mitan, sv. V.
shared (adj.) (shared/communal, general/universal, vulgar, profane) ga-mains (i-stem); "common to all" gamains allaize.
sharp *hwass; (sharp, steep/sheer) •skarps (cf. MnE scarp < It).
sharpen (incite, entice, seduce, persuade) ga-hwatjan, wv. 1.
sharply hwassaba.
sharpness hwassei, wf.
shatter ga-brikan, sv. IV., dis-hniupan, wv. 2.; "get/be/become shattered, smashed, broken apart" dis-hnupnan, wv. 4.
shave skaban, sv. VI.; "shave bald" bi-skaban, wv. VI.
she si; "she who" sei.
sheaf •garba, sf.
shear skaban, bi-skaban, sv. VI.
sheath fodr, sn.
shed (n.) (hut, shack) •bawitha, sf.
shed (v.) "shed tears" tagrjan, wv. 1.; "shed light on" ga-liuhtjan, wv. 1.
she-devil un-hultho, wf.
sheep lamb, sn.; (ewe, female sheep) *aus, sf. (gen. *awais).
sheepfold awistr, sn.
shekel sikls, sm.
shelf (board) •brith, sn. (gen. •bridis).
shell (v.) (remove shells) kappon, wv. 2.
shelter (n.) •bairgo, wf.; (arbour, shade, covered walkway, booth/hut) •laubjo, wf.
shelter (v.) (shelter, cover as with a tent) ufar-hleithrjan, wv. 1.; (help, protect) hleibjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (keep safe) bairgan, sv. III. +dat. "from" faura +dat.; (protect, shield, shelter) •skairmjan, wv. 1. (?dat. as in MHG).
shepherd hairdeis, sm.
shew-bread faur-lageins, sf.
shield (n.) skildus, sm.; (shield, shield-edge) •randa, sf.; (rim, small shield) •targo, wf.; "linden shield" •linda, sf.
shield (v.) (protect, help) hleibjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (protect, shield, shelter) •skairmjan, wv. 1. (?dat. as in MHG); (keep safe) bairgan, sv. III. +dat. "from" faura +dat.
shift (v.) mith-satjan, wv. 1.
shilling skillings, sm.
shine skeinan, sv. I., liuhtjan, wv. 1; (shine round/over/on) bi-skeinan, sv. I.; (gleam, glitter) glitmunjan, wv. 1.
shining (adj.) liuhadeins, liuhtjands.
shiny liuhadeins, liuhtjands.
ship skip, sn.; "shipwreck, abandoning ship" us-fartho, wf. - "jump overboard to escape shipwreck" usfarthon gataujan us skipa; "sail, row, voyage, travel by ship" farjan, wv. 1.
shirt (jacket, tunic, shirt) paida, sf.
shit (n.) (excrement, rubbish) smarnos, sf.pl.; (dung) maihstus, sm.
shit (v.) •skeitan, sv. I.
shock (v.) us-agjan, us-gaisjan, wv. 1.; "to be shocked" (stunned, astonished, shaken) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., us-geisnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1.
shod ga-skohs.
shoe skohs, sm.; "shoe string" skauda-raips, sm.; "pair of shoes" ga-skohi, sn.
shoestring skauda-raips, sm.
shoot (n.) (of plant) •brutilo, wf.; (tendril) •hragka, sf.
shoot (v.) •skiutan, sv. II. (Crim. schieten; Probably +dat. for missile, +acc. for target - cf. wairpan, rignjan & ON skjóta); "shoot upwards, rise quickly, leap up" us-hlaupan, sv. VII.
shore (bank, landing-place) staths, sm. (gen. stathis); "on the seashore" faur marein, withra marein ana statha; "shore up" (make firm, strengthen) tulgjan, ga-tulgjan, ga-thwastjan, wv. 1..
short "he was a short man" wahstau leitils was; *maurgus; "for a short while" du leitilamma mela, du leitilai hweilai.
shorten ga-maurgjan, wv. 1.
shortsword (cleaver, machete, long knife, single-edged sword) #sahs, sm. (gen. #sahsis), #skrama, sf.; (sword) hairus, sm.
shortage gaidw, wan, sn., waninassus, sm.; (need) tharba, sf.; "I have a shortage of that" wan this ist mis.
shorten (curtail, cut short) ga-maurgjan, wv. 1.
should skulan, pp. - skal, skulum, skulda.
shoulder ?ams, sm., ?amsa, wm. (acc.pl. amsans).
shout (n.) drunjus, sm.; (outcry, shouting) hrops, sm.
shout (v.) hropjan, uf-hropjan, wv. 1., auhjon, wv. 2.
shouting (n.) hrops, sm.
shove *skiuban, sv. II.; (push, smite) stautan, sv. VII.; (thrust, push, make war) stigqan, sv. III.; (push away/aside) af-skiuban, sv. II.; (push off) af-tiuhan, SV. II.
shovel *skauro, wf.
show augjan, at-augjan, wv. 1.; "show oneself to" ataugjan sik +dat.; (reveal) bairhtjan, and-huljan, sv. I; (reveal, manifest) ga-swikunthjan, wv. 1.; (tell) ga-teihan, sv. I.; (present) faur-lagjan, at-satjan, wv. 1.; (demonstrate, signify, indicate) us-taiknjan, wv. 1.; (repay, give out, show) us-giban, sv. V.; (show off, ingratiate oneself) samjan sis, wv. 1.
show-bread (presentation) faur-lageins, sf.
shower (of rain) skura, sf.; (for bathing) ufar-ranneins, sf.
shred (n.) (scrap of cloth) fana, sm., •fata, sf., •laska, sf., plats, sm.; (cord, string) *snors, sf., •snobo, wf.
shred (v.) (rip to pieces) dis-skreitan, sv. I., dis-tairan, ga-tairan, sv. IV.; (shred, scatter) dis-tahjan, wv. 1.
shriek (n.) (blare, screech, trumpet blast) *thuts, sm. (i-stem); (shout) drunjus, sm.
shriek (v.) •kreitan, sv. I.; (cry out, shout) wopjan, wv. 1.
shrink (v.) (dry/shrivel, INTR.) thairsan, ga-thairsan, *snairpan, sv. III., thaursnan, ga-thaursnan, wv. 4.; "shrink from, avoid" bi-wandjan, wv. 1.
shrivel (INTR.) thairsan, ga-thairsan, *snairpan, sv. III., thaursnan, ga-thaursnan, wv. 4.; (get scorched) uf-brinnan, sv. III.; (TRANS.) (wrinkle, scrunch) *snarpjan, wv. 1.; (wrinkle by handling) at-snarpjan, wv. 1.
shun (avoid) bi-wandjan, wv. 1.; (disown) af-aikan, sv. VII. +acc.; (leave behind, desert) bi-leithan, sv. I. +dat. or +acc.
shut (v.) lukan, sv. II.; "be/get shut" ga-luknan, wv. 4.
shut up (be quiet) (intr.) af-dobnan, af-dumbnan, wv. 4., ga-slawan, wv. 3.
sick (adj.) siuks; "to be sick/unwell" siukan, sv. II., ubil/ubilaba haban, wv. 3.; (be sick in stomach, suffer indigestion) suqnan, wv. 4.; "to be sick, vomit" •rupatjan, wv. 1.; "be taken sick with fever" brinnon ana-habaida wisan, irreg.
sicken (intr.) suqnan, wv. 4.
sickle giltha, sf.
sickness sauhts, sf., siukei, wf., un-haili, sn.; (weakness, infirmity) un-mahts, sf.; (wound, disease) wundufni, sf.
side (side, half) halba, sf.; (side, region) fera, sf. - "on [the/his/her/my. etc.] left side" af hleidumein/taihswon ferai; "standing on the right side of the altar" standands af taihswon hunslastadis; (side/shore of a lake, etc.) staths, sm. (gen. stathis); "on yon side of" hindana +gen.; "from all sides" aljathro.
sigh (n.) (sighing) *swogeins, sf.; (sigh, rushing noise as of wind) swogs, sm. (i-stem).
sigh (v.) *swogjan, ga-swogjan, wv. 1.; (repeatedly) swogatjan, wv. 1.; (deeply) uf-swogjan, wv. 1.
sight (something seen, a vision, the faculty of sight) siuns, sf.; (revelation, vision) bairhteins, sf.; "catch sight of" ga-saihwan, sv. III.
sign (n.) bandwa, sf., bandwo, wf.; (wonder) faura-tani, sn., (token, miracle) taikns, sf.
sign (v.) (one's name) uf-meljan, wv. 1.; (signal, indicate, give a sign, use sign language) bandwjan, wv. 1. (dat. of person signalled to, acc. of sign).
signal (v.) (make a sign to) ga-bandwjan, wv. 1. (dat. of person signalled to, acc. of sign).
significance (importance, meaning) wulthrs, sf.
significant wulthrs.
signify bandwjan, taiknjan, us-taiknjan, wv. 1.
silence (n.) thahains, sf.; *slawitha, sf.; (silence, attention) #hliuth, sn. (gen. #hliuthis).
silence (v.) (dumbfound) af-slauthjan, wv. 1.; "be silenced/dumbfounded" af-slauthnan, wv. 4.
silent (mute) dumbs; (unspeaking) un-rodjands; (deaf and dumb, bland and without taste) bauths (gen. baudis); "to become silent" af-dumbnan, af-dobnan, wv. 4, slawan, ga-slawan, ana-slawan, thahan, ga-thahan, ana-silan, wv. 3.
silver (adj.) *silubreins.
silver (n.) silubr, sn.
similar (like, alike) ga-leiks - "to" +dat.; (akin) sama-kuns (i-stem); "like, similar to" swe; "of similar opinion, in agreement" sama-frathjis, sama-saiwals, ga-qiss.
similarly (likewise, in like manner) ga-leiko, ana-leiko, sama-leiko.
simile (image, example) fri-sahts, sf.; (parable) ga-juko, wf.
similitude ga-leiki, sn.
simple ain-falths.
simplicity ain-falthei, wf.
simply ain-falthaba.
simulacrum ga-leiki, sn.
simultaneously "at the same time" bijands; "and at the same time" bijandz-uth-than.
sin (n.) fra-waurhts, missa-deths, sf. (gen. missa-dedais).
sin (v.) fra-waurkjan, wv. 1. - fra-waurhta, fra-waurhts; "I have sinned" frawaurhta mis; "sin against, do wrong to" fra-waurkjan du +dat.
since (BECAUSE) du-the, du-the ei; (because, for insofar as) unte raihtis...; (given that, seeing as) thande; "since X how come Y" thande...hwaiwa; (since, for) auk (second in sentence) - e.g. "since they were afraid" wesun auk usagidai; (TIME) fram +dat., af +dat. - "since that day" fram thamma daga; "since the beginning of creation" fram anastodeinai gaskaftais; "since last year" af/fram fairnin jera.
sincere (open, honest) un-hindar-weis, un-liuts; (faithful) triggws; (holy, honest) airkns.
sincerely "sincerely believe" triggwaba ga-laubjan, wv. 1.
sincerity (honesty, holiness, genuineness) airknitha, sf.
sinful fra-waurhts.
sing (v.) siggwan, sv. III., liuthon, wv. 2.; (lament, sing dirge) gaunon, wv. 2.; (chant, read out loud) us-siggwan, wv. III.; (sing, chant) *galan, sv. VI.
singe (singe, etch) •blesjan, wv. 1.; "get singed/scorched" uf-brinnan, sv. III.
singer liuthareis, sm.
singing (n.) (song, music) saggws, sm. (i-stem); (song, poem) *liuth, sn.
single out ga-tarhjan, wv. 1.
single ain-falths.
sinister (unholy, demonic) *un-hulths.
sink (INTR.) sigqan, ga-sigqan, sv. III.; (sink down out of sight) dis-sigqan, sv. III.; (TRANS.) uf-sagqjan, wv. 1.
sinner fra-waurhts, un-sibjis, sm., fra-waurhto, wf.
sister swistar, f.
sit (sit, be sitting) sitan, wv. V.; (sit up) us-sitan, wv. V.; (sit down) ga-sitan, sv. V.; (sit down to eat) ana-kumbjan, wv. 1. ; (sit down together to eat) mith-ana-kumbjan, wv. 1.; (sit about/near/beside) bi-sitan, sv. V.
six saihs.
sixth saihsta.
sixty saihs tigjus.
size (growth, size) wahstus, sm.; "he was small in size, he was a short man" wahstau leitils was; (hugeness, majesty) mikilei, wf.; "the same size" sama-lauths (gen. -laudis).
skewed (slanting) *halths; (crooked) wraiqs; (corrupt, biased, given to favouritism) *wilja-halths.
skill (cleverness, wisdom) handugei, wf.
skillful #sarus; (clever, wise) handugs.
skin (n.) fill, sn.
skin, wine balgs, sm. (i-stem).
skip (v.) (hop, skip, jump) •trippon, wv. 1.; (avoid) bi-wandjan, wv. 1.
skull hwairnei, wf.
sky himins, sm.
Skythian Skythus, sm.
slab hallus, sm.
slain (n.) (the slain, the dead on the battlefield) #wals, sm.
slam (v.) (bump, slam) stigqan, bi-stigqan, sv. III. - "against" bi +dat.; (hit/stub) ga-stagqjan, wv. 1. - "so you won't hit your foot on a single stone" ei hwan ni gastagqjais bi staina fotu theinana.
slander (n.) bi-hait, sn.; *ubil-waurdei, wf., ana-qiss, sf.
slander (v.) ubil-waurdjan, waja-merjan, wv. 1.
slanderer diabula, sf.
slap (n.) slahs lofin, sm. (i-stem.) (Lit.: "a hit with the palm").
slap (v.) kaupatjan, wv. 1. - kaupasta, kaupatiths; (slap in face, bruise/buffet, chastise) wlizjan, wv. 1.
slash (n.) (a rip/tear in something) ga-taura, wm.
slash (v.) (tear, rip, rend) tahjan, wv. 1., *tairan, wv. 4.; (slit) •slitjan, wv. 1.; (tear up/apart, slash to pieces) dis-skreitan, sv. I, dis-tairan, ga-tairan, sv. IV.; (be/get torn/slashed) dis-skritnan, ga-taurnan, wv. 4.
slaughter (v.) af-slahan, sv. VI, af-sneithan, uf-sneithan, sv. I.
slaughter (n.) slauhts, sf.; (battle, the slain) #wals, sm.
slavery thiwadw, sn.
slay dauthjan, af-dauthjan, ga-dauthjan, wv. 1.; (kill, destroy) us-qiman, sv. IV +dat. or +acc., us-qistjan, wv. 1 +dat. or +acc.; (slaughter) af-slahan, sv. VI, af-sneithan, uf-sneithan, sv. I.
sleep (n.) sleps, sm.
sleep (v.) slepan, sv. VII. - saislep/saizlep, slepans; (fall asleep) ga-slepan, ana-slepan, sv. VII.; ('sleep' with, have sex) *ga-ligan, sv. V.
sleeplessness wokains, sf.
slice (n.) •liska, wm.
slice (v.) sneithan, sv. I.
slight (adj.) smals, leitils.
slight (v.) (offend) ga-sleithjan, wv. 1.; (provoke) gramjan, in-gramjan, wv. 1.
slightest minnists.
slime (mud) fani, sn.
slink sliupan, sv. II.; "slink away, sneak by" uf-sliupan, sv. II.
slip out of (take off item of clothing) af-slaupjan, wv. 1. +acc.
slip (sneak) sliupan, sv. II.; (slip) •slipjan, wv. 1.
slit (v.) •slitjan, wv. 1.; (tear) tahjan, wv. 1., *tairan, wv. 4.
slope (n.) (steep slope, cliff) driuso, wf; (downward slope) ib-daljo, wn. (or ?ib-dalja, wm.).
slope (v.) (incline) *halthjan, wv. 1.; (fall) driusan, sv. II.
sloping (Also fig.: inclined) *halths.
slothful lats.
slow (slow, tardy) *sainus; (slow on the uptake, stupid) dwals.
sludge fani, sn., •mulma, ? (malma 'sand' is wm.).
sluggish (lazy) lats.
slur (reproach) idweit, sn.; "to take away the slur I have among people" afniman idweit mein in mannam.
slyness (caution, slyness) warei, wf.; (slyness, deceit) hindar-weisei, wf.
small leitils, smals; "he was a small/short man" wahstau leitils was.
smaller (smaller, lesser) minniza.
smallest minnists.
smash ga-brikan, sv. IV., dis-hniupan, wv. 2.; "be/get smashed/shattered, broken apart" dis-hnupnan, wv. 4.
smear (v.) *smeitan, bi-smeitan, ga-smeitan, sv. I. (dat. of pers. smeared, acc. of body part smeared & substance); "he smeared me in the eyes" bismait mis augona; "he smeared the mud in his eyes" gasmait imma ana augona thata fani.
smell (n.) dauns, sf.
smell (v.) (INTR. smell bad/rotten, stink) fuls wisan, irreg.
smite slahan, sv. VI.; (smite, push) stautan, sv. VII.; (beat) bliggwan, sv. III.; (slap) kaupatjan, wv. 1. - kaupasta, kaupatiths; (hit in the face, bruise, punish) wlizjan, wv. 1.
smith smitha, wm.
smoke (n.) !rauks, sm. (i-stem).
smooth slaihts; (flat) ibns.
smuts (flying ash) falwiska, sf.
snag (n.) (obstacle) marzeins, sf.; (hindrance, cause of contention) ga-marzeins, sf.; (stumbling-block) bi-stugq, sn.
snake waurms, sm.; (adder, viper) nadrs, sm.
snare wruggo, wf.
snatch •rapon, •taskon, wv. 2.; (seize, catch, grab) fahan, ga-fahan, sv. VII, greipan, fair-greipan, und-greipan, sv. I.; (make off with) bi-niman, sv. IV.; (steal) hlifan, sv. V., stilan, sv. IV.; (plunder, rob) wilwan, sv. III.; (carry off, snatch away) fra-wilwan, sv. III.
sneak sliupan, sv. II.; "sneak in" inn-uf-sliupan, sv. II.; "sneak by/away" uf-sliupan, sv. II.
snipe (n.) (type of bird) •snippa, sf.
sniping (gossip, talk, 'backbiting') bi-rodeins, sf.
snort (n.) •blests, sm.
snort (v.) •blestjan, wv. 1.
snow snaiws, sm.
so (LIKE THAT, thus, in such a way) swa; "TO DO SO" swa taujan, wv. 1.; "why are you so afraid?" duhwe faurhtai sijuth swa?; (AND SO, CONSEQUENTLY) nu, nu-nu, than (second position in clause, when used with this meaning); (so then) Than-nu, Than-nu nu, Than-nu than, Nu-nu nu, Swa-ei nu (start of clause); (JUST AS...SO TOO) swa-swe...swa jah, swa-swe...swah; "AS...SO TOO" swe...swa jah; "it will happen JUST SO [IN THIS WAY] on that day" bi thamma wairthith thamma daga; "SO THAT" ei, swa-ei, swa-swe, swe; "SO THAT THEN [IN THAT CASE]" ei-thau; "SO GREAT" swa-lauths (gen. swa-laudis); "SO LONG AS" swa-lauth melis swe; "AND SO ON, ET CETERA" jah laibos; "BUT IF SO, THEN..." aiththau waila thau...; "SO...?" an nuh...?; "SO WHO...?" an hwas...?; "SO WHAT...?" an hwa...?, hwa auk...?, hwa nuh...? - "so what do you know?" hwa nuk-kant thu?; (IN NARRATIVE) "AND SO/THEN" than-uh, thar-uh; "AND SO/THEN HE SAID" ith is qath, ith is qathuh, thanuh/tharuh is qath; "AS YE SOW SO TOO SHALL YE REAP" that-ei saijith that-uh jah sneithith.
soak (v.) •suppon, wv. 2.
soar (v.) hwilban, sv. III.
sober (adj.) in-ahs; (rational) *ga-frathjis; (alert) un-skaus.
sober up (bring round) us-skaujan, wv. 1.; (come round) us-skaujan sik, wv. 1.
soberness (self-possession) in-ahei, wf.; (sense, reasonablness) ga-frathjei, wf.
sobriety (command of one's senses) in-ahei, wf.; (sense, rationality) ga-frathjei, wf.
sodden *qramms.
soft hnasqus, thlaqus, *muks; •leiseis; (gentle, agreeable) •lintheis.
soften (alleviate) •linthjan, wv. 1.
sogginess qrammitha, sf.
soggy *qramms.
soil mulda, sf.
soldier (serviceman) ga-drauhts, sm. (i-stem), militonds, m.; (footsoldier) #fanthja, wm.; (young) #St(i)uriliggs; (swordsman) spadiggs, sm.; "serve as soldier" driugan, sv. II., drauhtinon, militon, wv. 2.
soldiers (band of) *drauhts, sf.; (army) harjis, sm.
sole (adj.) (only) ains, ainaha, w.adj.
sole (n.) (sandal, sole of shoe) suljo, wf.
solid (firm, solid, good) *theihts; (firm, secure, safe) *thwasts.
some (some, someone, a certain person) sums; "some...others" sumai(h)...sumaih, sumai raihtis...sumai than; "somehow, by some/any means" hwe, hweh; "so that somehow" ei hweh +subj.; "lest [perhaps/somehow]" ibai aufto; "lest at any/some time" ibai hwan.
somebody sums, ains; "someone...someone" ains...ains, sums...sums.
someone sums, ains; "someone...someone" ains...ains, sums...sums.
something sum, ain, hwa.
sometime (adv.) hwan; "if sometime..." jabai hwan.
somewhat hwa; "seem somewhat..." thugkjan hwa... (thuhta, thuhts).
son sunus, sm.; (child, boy) barn, sn., barnilo, wn., baur, sm. (i-stem); "son-in-law" megs, sm. (=Gk. gambros 'son/father-in law', cf. ON mágr 'son/father/brother-in-law', OE maeg 'kinsman, son' also in poetry 'kinswoman').
song (singing, music) saggws, sm. (i-stem); (song, poem) *liuth, sn.
soon (early) air; (quickly) sprauto; (soon, at once) suns; (to be almost here, be near at hand) in-wisan, irreg.; "as soon as" suns-ei, bi-the.
sooner (earlier, sooner) airis.
soothe (alleviate) •linthjan, wv. 1.; (refresh, cheer, comfort) ana-thrafstjan, wv. 1.
sorceress halja-runa, sf.
sorceror (one knowledgeable about potions) lubja-leis, sm.
sorcery (with potions) lubja-leisei, wf.
sore (n.) (wound, plague) wundufni, sn.; (open wound, blow) banja, sf.
sorrow (n.) gauritha, saurga, sf., gaurei, wf.; (grief, anger) •grama, wm.
sorrow (v.) ga-hnipnan, wv. 4.; (sorrow, worry) saurgan, wv. 3.
sorrowful (sad, sullen) gaurs.
sorry "be sorry, repent" idreigon sik, wv. 1.; "I'm sorry" idreigo mik; "be sorrowful/unhappy" ga-hnipnan, wv. 4.; "worry, be sad/concerned" saurgan, wv. 3.
sort (n.) (kin, type) kuni, sn. - "this sort [of demon] can't come out at all except with prayer and fasting" thata kuni in waihtai ni mag usgaggan niba in bidai jah fastubni; "what sort of" hwi-leiks; "she wondered to herself what sort of greeting this could be" thahta sis hwileika wesi so goleins; "sort of/kinda" hwa; "in all sorts of distress" in allom aglom.
sort (v.) (arrange into order, appoint/assign) ga-tewjan, wv. 1.; (prepare, make suitable) ga-fahrjan, wv. 1.; (determine, order, fix, appoint) raidjan, wv. 1.; (sort out, rectify) at-ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.; (fix, mend) aftra ga-botjan, wv. 1., aftra ga-satjan, wv. 1.
soul (soul as oppised to body, one's physical life, emotional heart) saiwala, sf.; (spirit) ahma, wm., #anda, ?wm./?sf.; (heart) hairto, wn.; (basis, essence, self-confidence) stoma, sm.
sound (healthy) hails; (strong, sound) swinths.
sound (n.) (noise, noise, din, tumult) auhjodus, sm.; (rustling, rushing noise like air) *swogs, sm. (i-stem); (crash) *hlamms, sm. (i-stem); (voice) stibna, sf.; (shout) drunjus, sm.; "trumpet noise" *thuts, sm. (i-stem); "to make a noise/din/tumult" auhjon, wv. 2.; "make a clanging/clashing noise like cymbals" klismjan, wv. 1.; "crash, roar, resound" *hlimman, sv. III.
sound (v.) hillan, sv. III.?
soup •bruth, sn.
souq (market) mathl, sn., ga-runs, sf. (gen. ga-runsais).
sour (terrible, bitter, sour) •aifrs; (bitter) baitrs; (sharp, severe) *hwass.
source brunna, wm.
south (n.) #sunthr, sn., #sunthra-halba, sf.; (adj.) #sunthrs, #sunthra-; (adv.) "towards the south" #sunth, #sunthath; "in the south" #suntha, #sunthar; "from the south" #sunthathro, #sunthana.
southern #sunthrs, #sunthra-.
southward (adv.) #sunth, #sunthath.
sovereign (n.) (king) thiudans, reiks, sm.; (emperor) kaisar, sm.; (ruler) fraujinonds, m.; (governor) kindins, sm.; (lord, master) frauja; (master) *waldands, m.
sow (n.) (female pig) •sus, f. (cons.stem.).
sow (v.) (sow seed) saian, sv. VII. - saiso, saians +dat. for seed (as in ON, but cf. "you shall reep what you sow" thatei saijith thatuh jah sneithith); (sow in) in-saian, sv. VII.
sower (of seed) saiands, m.
space (room, space) rums, sm.; "in the space of" bi +acc.; "in three days I will build another" bi thrins dagans anthara gatimrja.
spacious ur-rumnans.
spare (v.) freidjan, wv. 1.
sparingly us ga-thagkja.
spark (n.) (sparkle, gleam) *glitmuni, sf.; (of electricity/lightning, of fire) lauhmuni, sf.; (flash, blink) brahw, sn.
spark (v.) (like lightning) lauhatjan, wv. 1.; (sparkle, shine) glitmunjan, wv. 1.; (flash, blink) braihwan, sv. III.
sparkle glitmunjan, wv. 1.
sparrow sparwa, wm.
sparrow-hawk •sparwareis, sm.
speak rodjan, wv. 1. - "to" du +dat., "with" mith +dat., "about" bi +acc.; "speak/gossip about" bi-rodjan bi, wv. 1. +acc.; (in public) mathljan, wv. 1.; (bring out, speak) us-bairan, sv. IV.; "speak a language" razdai rodjan, wv. 1.; "speak/act as if mad" dwalmon, wv. 2.; "babble, speak too much" filu-waurdjan, wv. 1.; "speak foolishly" *dwala-waurdjan, wv. 1.; "speak empty nonsense" *lausa-waurdjan, wv. 1.
spear •spiuts, #gais, sm. (#gaizis); (ash spear) #asks, sm.; (shaft) #skafts, sm.; "spearhead, spear-tip" #gaida, sf., #uzds, sm.
specific *us-sinds; "on a specific occasion, once" ainamma sintha.
specifically this-hun; (namely, actually, thus) raihtis.
spectacle fair-weitl, sn.
speech (language) razda, sf.; (talk, conversation) ga-waurdi, sn.; (something said) *qiss, sf.; (excessive) filu-waurdei, wf.; (foolish) dwala-waurdei, wf.; (empty, pointless) lausa-waurdei, wf.; (crude, obscene) aglaiti-waurdei, wf.; (puplic) mathlei, wf., mathleins, sf.; "suffering from a speech impediment" stamms.
speechless un-rodjands, dumbs.
speed (v.) sniwan, sv. V., sniumjan, ga-sniumjan, wv. 1.; (run, hasten) rinnan, sv.
speedily (quickly) sniumundo; (soon) sprauto.
speedy *sniumeis, •snills, •adrs; (quick, ready) #arws.
spelk gramst, ?sn.
spell "to put a spell on" af-hugjan, wv. 1.
spend fra-qiman, sv. IV. +dat. or +acc., fra-wisan, sv. V.
spew (retch, vomit) •rupatjan, wv. 1.
spice (v.) supon, ga-supon, wv. 2.
spices (for perfume) aromata, sn.pl.
spike (n.) •stikils, sm.; (sting, goad) gazds, sm.; (point of spear) #gaida, sf., #uzds, sm.; (tip) *peika, sf.
spilt, to be us-gutnan, wv. 4.
spin spinnan, sv. III.; (toss, swirl) us-walugjan, wv. 1.
spindle •rukka, sf.; "spindle whorl" (r)rango, wf.
spirit ahma, wm., #anda, wm.?/sf.?; (soul, life, physical existence) saiwala, sf.; (awareness, consciousness) aha, wm.; (emotional mind, soul, heart) hairto, wn.; (courage) balthei, wf.; (basis, essence, foundation, self-confidence) stoma, wm.; "evil spirit" un-hultho, wf., un-hultha, wm., skohsl, sn., diab(a)ulus, sm.; "the Holy Spirit" ahma sa weiha, ahma weiha, weiha ahma, wm.; "rejoice in spirit" swegnjan ahmin, wv. 1.
spiritual ahmeins.
spit (n.) (saliva) spaiskuldr, sn.; (for roasting) •spitus, m.
spit (v.) speiwan, sv. I.; "spit on" bi-speiwan, sv. I.; "spit at, despise, reject" and-speiwan, sv. I.; "to spit in his face" speiwan ana wlit is.
spite (hate, envy, anger) neith, sn. (gen. neithis); (nastiness, deceit) •bausei, wf.; "IN SPITE OF this, nevertheless" aththan swe-thauh; "for all this" ana tho alla.
spittle spaiskuldr, sn.
spleen •milti, sf.
splendid wulthags.
splendour wulthus, sm., •ga-laubei, wf.
splinter (n.) gramst, ?sn.
splinter (v.) (INTR.) (become broken) *bruknan, wv. 4.; (become smashed to bits) dis-hnupnan, wv. 4.; (be scattered/dispersed) *dis-tahnan, wv. 4.
split (n.) (distinction, difference) ga-skaideins, sf.; (separation, divorce) af-sateins, af-stass, sf.; "split in opinion, discord" twis-stass, missa-qiss, sf.
split (v.) (separate, part, depart, leave) skaidan, sv. VII. +dat. or +acc.; "split up with, leave" fairra skaidan +dat.; "to split son from father, set them at odds" skaidan mannan withra attan is; (share, share out) dailjan, ga-dailjan, wv. 1.; (break) brikan, ga-brikan, sv. IV.; (tear apart) dis-skreitan, sv. I., dis-tairan, ga-tairan, sv. IV.; (scatter, shred, disperse) dis-tahjan; (scatter like chaff, "scatter to the four winds") dis-winthjan, wv. 1.; (break asunder) dis-hniupan, sv. II.; (become broken) *bruknan, wv. 4.; (become broken off) us-bruknan, wv. 4.
spoil (n.) (booty) •rauba, sf.; (reward) laun, sn.
spoil (v.) (TRANS.) fra-wardjan, wv. 1.; riurjan, wv. 1.; (INTR.) fra-wairthan, sv. III.
spokesman #sagja, wm.
sponge (sponge, fungus) swamms, sm.
spooky (sinister, demonic, unholy) *un-hulths.
spool (n.) •spola, sf.
spoon •lapins, sm.
spot (blemish, stain) wamm, sn.; (mole on skin) *mail, sn.; (place) staths, sm. (i-stem, gen. stadis); "in that place" ana thamma stada.
spotless un-wamms.
spotlessness un-wammei, wf.
spouse (wife) qens, sf.; (husband) aba, wm.
spread (TRANS.) *braidjan, wv. 1.; (strew) straujan +dat., ga-straujan (*dat.), uf-straujan, wv. 1. +dat.; (scatter, sprinkle) ufar-trusnjan, wv. 1. (dat. for substance being sprinkled); (scatter, disperse) dis-tahjan, wv. 1.; "spread the word" merjan, us-merjan, wv. 1., thata waurd us-qithan, sv. V.; (INTR.) (grow, increase) wahsjan, sv. VI.; (abound, multiply) managnan, wv. 4.; (be expanded) ur-rumnan, wv. 4.
sprig tains, sm.
spring (n.) brunna, wm., •kaldiggs, sm.
spring up us-hlaupan, sv. VII.; (rise) ur-rinnan, sv. III.; (sprout up) liudan, sv. II., keinan, us-keinan, sv. I. - keinoda, kijans; (appear) at-augjan sik, wv. 1.
sprinkle ufar-trusnjan, wv. 1. (dat. of thing being thrown).
sprinkling (n.) (for ritual bathing) ufar-ranneins, sf.
sprout (v.) liudan, sv. II., keinan, us-keinan, sv. I. - keinoda, kijans; (quickly sprout, spurt) *spriutan, sv. II.
spur •spaura, wm.
spurn (despise, reject) fra-kunnan, pp. - fra-kann, fra-kunnum, fra-kuntha (dat. or: at +dat.); (rebuff) uf-brikan, sv. IV. +dat.; "spit at, despise, reject" and-speiwan, sv. I.
spurned (despised, rejected) *fra-kunths; (unloved) un-liufs (gen. un-liubis).
spurt (v.) (quickly sprout, spurt) *spriutan, sv. II.
spy (v.) •spaihon, wv. 2.; (spy/scout out, inspect, reconnoitre) bi-niuhsjan, wv. 1.
spy (spy, scout) spaiha, wm.; (ambusher, agent provocateur) ferja, wm.
squabble (n.) jiuka, sf., •bega, sf.
squabble (v.) (dispute, rebuke, accuse, squabble, argue) sakan, and-sakan, sv. VI.; (dispute, compete) and-rinnan, sv. III.; (fight) haiftjan, wv. 1.; (break, fight, quarrel) brikan, sv. IV.
squall skura, skura windis, sf.; (at sea) wegs, sm.
squash (crowd) threihan, wv. 1.; (cram) •kramjan, wv. 1.; (press) •thrukjan, wv. 1.; "squash/crush spirits, grind down mentally" us-grudjan, wv. 1.
stab (v.) (stab, prick, puncture) *stikan, sv. V.
stability (firmness, steadfastness) tulgitha, sf.; (security, safety, firmness) thwastitha, sf.
stable (adj.) *thwasts.
stable (n.) (stall) •stalls, sm., •stalla, wm.
stadium spaurds, f.
staff (STICK) (branch, tree) triu, sn.; (rod, stick, cane) wandus, sm.; (walking-stick) walus, sm., hrugga, wf.; (wand, magic staff) #gands, sm.; (WORKERS) (servants, thralls) thewis, sn.
stain (n.) wamm, sn.
stain (v.) ana-wammjan, wv. 1.; (sully, befoul) bi-sauljan, wv. 1.; (become stained/sullied) bi-saulnan, wv. 4.
stained wamms, ga-wamms, bi-sauliths.
staircase •stiga, sf.
stairs •stiga, sf.
stalk (n.) •stiggils, sm., •butilo, wf.
stall •stalls, sm., •stalla, wm.
stallion •stallja, wm.
stammering (adj.) stamms.
stamp (n.) (seal) sigljo, wf.
stamp (v.) stampon, wv. 2.
stand (v.) (be stood) standan, sv. VI.; (stand up) us-standan, sv. VI.; (come to a standstill, stand fast/firm, abide, remain in place or condition) ga-standan, sv. VI.; "stand near" at-standan, sv. VI.; "stand away/off from" af-standan, sv. VI.; (cope with) fra-bairan, sv. IV.; "stand by, stand beside in support" mith-wisan, sv. V. +dat.
stand(ing) off af-stass, sf.
star stairno, wf.
stare (v.) (gaze, gaze around, look attentively, watch) fair-weitjan, wv. 1. "at" du, or +gen. - "up to, as far as" in +acc.; "watch up to the end of" fairweitjan und andi +gen.
start (n.) frums, sm., frumisti, sn., ana-stodeins, sf.; "from the start" fram frumistin, fram frumistja; "from the first" us frumistja; "at the start, at first, firstly" frumist.
start (v.) ana-stodjan, du-stodjan, wv. 1, du-ginnan, sv. III.; "to start with" frumist; "you shall sorrow/start to sorrow" jus saurgandans wairthith.
startle us-agjan, us-gaisjan, wv. 1.; "to be startled" (stunned, astonished, shaken) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., us-geisnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1.; (to be amazed) silda-leikjan, wv. 1.
starve gredon, wv. 2., huggrjan, wv. 1. (impersonal verbs +acc. subject) - "I am hungry/starved" gredoth mik, huggreith mik.
starving "empty-bellied" laus-qithrs; "hungry" gredags.
state (n.) (authority, nation, powers-that-be) reiki, sn.
state (v.) (say) qithan, sv. V.; (claim, argue) in-sakan, sv. VI.
statement (anything said) *qiss, sf.; (quote, passage, thing said) thata qithano, wn.; (argument, claim) in-sahts, sf.; "pronouncements, things said in public" mathleins, sf., mathlei, wf.
station (n.) (step, degree, station in life) griths, sf. (gen. gridais).
statue (molded figure, clay model) ga-digis, sn. (-s-? -z-? - no oblique forms survive).
stature (PHYSICAL STATURE, growth) us-wahsts, sf.; (size, growth) wahstus, sm.; "he was small in stature, he was a short man" wahstau leitils was; (REPUTE, fame) *merei, wf.; (fame, boast) hwoftuli; (report, rumour, fame) meritha, sf.; "good repute" waila-merei, wf.
stave (n.) (stick, club, sword) •stukks, sm.; (stick) •stika, wm., •stagga, sf.; (tree, branch, staff) triu, sn.; (rod, stick, cane) wandus, sm.; (staff, walking-stick) walus, sm., hrugga, wf.; (stake, post, tentpeg) *staka, wm.; (wand, magic staff) #gands, sm.; (LETTER, rune) stafs, (i-stem, gen. stabis).
stave off (prevent, forbid) warjan, wv. 1.; (escape) untha-thliuhan, sv. II.; (avoid) bi-wandjan, wv. 1.
stay (stay behind, be left) af-lifnan, wv. 4, bi-leiban, sv. I.; (carry on being, dwell, abide, continue to be/exist) wisan, sv. V. - "he stays faithful" jains triggws wisith; (end up staying) ga-wisan, sv. V. - "he stayed dumb" gawas dumbs; "continue, persist" thairh-wisan, fram-wairthis wisan, sv. V.; (halt, come to standstill, stay standing still/firm, remain in place or condition) ga-standan, sv. VI.; "to stay awake" thairh-wakan, sv. VI.; "stay with" mith-ga-wisan, sv. V.; (stay beside, stick by, be with in support of) mith-wisan, sv. V. +dat.; (live/dwell) bauan, wv. 3.; (stay as guest; offer as sacrifice) saljan, wv. 1.; "come to stay, take lodgings" us-saljan, wv. 1.
steadfast tulgus.
steadfastness (tolerance, endurance) us-thulains, sf.
steadiness (firmness, steadfastness) tulgitha, sf.
steal hlifan, sv. V., stilan, sv. IV.; (take, purloin) bi-niman, sv. IV.
stealing (n.) (theft) thiubi, sn.
stealth (secrecy) ana-laugnei, wf.
stealthy *thiubeis.
stealthily thiubjo.
steed #marhs, sm.
steer (calf) stiur, sm.
stem (n.) (stalk) •stiggils, sm.; (shoot) •brutilo, wf.
stem (v.) (stop a flow, dam up) faur-dammjan, wv. 1.; (impede) latjan, ga-latjan, ana-latjan, wv. 1.; (forbid, block, prevent) warjan, wv. 1.
step (n.) griths, sf. (gen. gridais); (track, foot-print, step, path) laists, sm. (i-stem); "steps, staircase" •stiga, sf.
step (v.) (tread) trudan, sv. IV., *trimpan, sv. III.; "step/tread on" ana-trimpan, sv. III.
steppe #aujos, sf.pl. (Jordanes: oium 'the Scythian steppe').
sterile (lacking fruit) akrana-laus; (unable to have children) un-bairands; (deserted, waste, sterile) auths (?i-stem, gen. authis); (of ground) •galtheis; "sterile/infertile woman" stairo, wf.
stern (of ship) nota, wm.
steward faura-gagga, faura-gaggja, wm.
stick (n.) •stika, wm., •stagga, sf.; (twig) tains, sm.; (tree, branch, staff) triu, sn.; (rod, stick, cane) wandus, sm.; (staff, walking-stick) walus, sm., hrugga, wf.; (stake, post, tentpeg) *staka, wm.; (wand, magic staff) #gands, sm.; (stick, club, sword) •stukks, sm.; "candle-stick" lukarna-statha, wm.
stick (v.) (be sticking to, e.g. dirt to shoe) ga-haftnan, wv. IV.; (fig.) haftjan, wv. 1. ("to" = dat.); "sticking to what is good" haftjandans godamma; "sticking/persisting at prayer" bidai haftjandans; "stick/stay/be with" mith-wisan, sv. V. +dat.; "stick/join together" ga-ga-haftjan - "the whole body fits and joins together" all leik gagatiloth jah gagahaftith.
stiff (hard) hardus; (strong) swinths; (steadfast) tulgus; (deaf, numb, insensitive, stubborn) daufs (gen. daubis); "go stiff" ga-staurknan, wv. 4.
stiffen (INTR.) ga-staurknan, wv. 4.
stifle af-hwapjan, wv. 1.
stigma (shame) skanda, sf., aiwiski, sn.; (mark of puncture wound) staks, sm. (i-stem).
stigmatise (humiliate) ga-haunjan, wv. 1.; (shame) skaman, wv. 3., aiwiskon, ga-aiwiskon, wv. 2.; (revile, insult) lauan, sv. VII. +dat., ga-naitjan, wv. 1.; (curse) fra-qithan, sv. V.; (victimise, slander) holon, wv. 2.
still (adv.) (yet) nauh; (still, yet) nauh-thanuh; (further) thana-mais; (longer in time) thana-seiths - "no longer" ni thana-seiths, ju-than ni; "why do you still...?" hwa thana-seiths...?; "come to standstill, continue standing still/firm, abide, remain in place or condition" ga-standan, sv. VI.
still (silent) (to be(come) silent) af-dobnan, wv. 4, af-dumbnan, wv. 4, slawan, ga-slawan, ana-slawan, wv. 3, ga-thahan, wv. 3, ana-silan, wv. 3.
stillness (peace) ga-wairthi, sn.; (tranquility, rest) rimis, sn. (gen. rimisis); (calm, calming down) ana-qal, sn.; (respite, rest, relaxation) ga-hweilains, sf.
sting (n.) •stuggs, sm. (i-stem); (spike, sting, goad) gazds, sm.
sting (v.) •stuggjan, wv. 1.
stink (v.) fuls wisan, irreg.
stir (PHYSICALLY: shake, stir) ga-wagjan, wv. 1.; (FIG.) (stir up, excite) us-wagjan, wv. 1.; "stir up anxiety/discord" drobjan, wv. 1.; (emotionally/inwardly move) in-wagjan, wv. 1.; "be stirred" in-wagjan sik, wv. 1., in-rauhtjan, wv. 1.; (provoke to anger) gramjan, in-gramjan, wv. 1.
stock (n.) (race, nation) knoths, sf. (gen. knodais); (family line) fadreins, sf.; (STICK) wandus, sm., walus, sm., hrugga, wf.
stockpile (v.) huhjan, wv. 1.
stomach wamba, sf., suqn, sn., •buks, sm., •mauko, wf.
stone (adj.) (made of stone) staineins.
stone (n.) stains, sm.; (boulder) hallus, sm.
stone (v.) stainjan, wv. 1. +acc.; (throw stones at) stainam wairpan ana, sv. III. +acc.
stony (stony ground, stony path) stainahs; (stony, stone/made of stone) staineins.
stool (stool, plank, foot-stool) •bridila, sf.; "stools/excrement" smarnos, sf.pl.
stoop down ana-hneiwan, sv. I.
stop (v.) (INTR.) (cease) sweiban, sv. I.; (end, finish, be done) andjan, ga-andjan, wv. 1.; (pause, cease) hweilan, ga-hweilan, wv. 3.; (come to standstill, continue standing still/firm, abide, remain in place/condition) ga-standan, sv. VI.; "stop oneself, hold back, avoid, refrain" ga-haban sik, wv. 3. - "from" af +dat.; (TRANS.) (bring to a stop) •stadjan, wv. 1.; (hamper, delay, hold up) latjan, ga-latjan, ana-latjan, wv. 1.; "stop one from" latjan, wv. 1. (dat. + inf.); (forbid, block, restrain, prevent) warjan, wv. 1.; (stop a flow, dam up) faur-dammjan, wv. 1.
stopper (tap, bung) •tappa, wm.; (bung) •dups, ?sm.
store up huzdjan, huhjan, wv. 1.
storm (n.) •staurms, sm.; (shower, storm) skura, sf.; (squall) skura windis (lit. shower of wind); (storm at sea) wegs, sm.
storm (v.) (attack, seize, take by force, grip emotionally) dis-sitan, sv. V.; (rage, bluster) •staurmjan, wv. 1.
story spill, sn.
stout (fat) *digrs; (strong) swinths; (steadfast) tulgus.
stoutness (fatness) digrei, wf.; (strength) swinthei, wf.
straight (right, straight & true) raihts; "to set straight, put in order" ga-raihtjan, wv. 1.; "STRAIGHT AWAY" suns, suns-aiw; (suddenly) anaks.
strain (reach out, strive) sik uf-thanjan, wv. 1.; (strive, make effort) us-daudjan, wv. 1.; (strive after, work to achieve) bi-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; (persevere) us-aiwjan, wv. 1.; (try, seek) sokjan, wv. 1.
strange (weird, marvelous) silda-leiks - "it isn't so strange, it's hardly surprising" nist silda-leik; (foreign, alien) alja-kuns (i-stem); (foreign, unfamiliar, of other people) framaths (i-stem, gen. framathis).
stranger (or guest) gasts, sm. (i-stem).
strap (n.) raips, ?sm. (Or raip, sn.)
straw *strau, sn.
stream rinno, wf., flodus, sf.; •baks, sm. (i-stem), ahwa, sf.
street gatwo, wf., *platja, ga-runs, sf. (gen. ga-runsais), faura-dauri, sn.
strength swinthei, wf.
strengthen in-swinthjan, ga-swinthjan, wv. 1.; (stengthen, make firm) tulgjan, ga-tulgjan, ga-thwastjan, wv. 1.
stress (n.) threihsl, sn., aggwitha, aglitha, sf., aglo, wf.
stress (v.) (wear out, get on nerves) us-agljan, af-dojan, wv. 1.
stretch (TRANS.) uf-thanjan; (proffer, stretch out) rahton, wv. 2., us-braidjan, wv. 1., uf-rakjan, wv. 1. - "stretch out a hand" ufrakjan handu; (stretch something out on, lay something down on) us-lagjan, wv. 1.; (INTR.) (stretch oneself, reach out, strive) uf-thanjan sik, wv. 1.; (reach, extend) fair-rinnan, sv. III.; "be extended, enlarged" ur-rumnan, wv. 4.
strew straujan +dat., ga-straujan (*dat.), uf-straujan, wv. 1. +dat.
strict (harsh, severe) *hwass; (narrow) aggwus.
strictly charge ga-hwotjan, wv. 1.
strictly (harshly, severely) hwassaba; "strictly speaking, namely, actually, as a matter of fact, indeed" raihtis.
strictness hwassei, wf.
strife brakja, haifsts, sf., sakjo, waihjo, wf.
strike (n.) (a blow, stroke, hit) slahs, sm. (i-stem).
strike (v.) slahan, sv. VI.; (smite, push) stautan, sv. VII.; (beat) bliggwan, sv. III.; (slap) kaupatjan, wv. 1. - kaupasta, kaupatiths; (strike in the face, punish) wlizjan, wv. 1.; (beat, strike) •biutan, sv. II.; (knock, touch) •tukkon, wv. 2.; "strike down, push over, cause to fall" af-drausjan, ga-drausjan, wv. 1.; (thrust, strike) sigqan, sv. III.; "attack" stigqan withra +acc.; (bump, slam) bi-stigqan, sv. III. - "against" bi +dat.; (hit/stub) ga-stagqjan, wv. 1. - "so you won't hit your foot on a single stone" ei hwan ni gastagqjais bi staina fotu theinana.
string *snors, sf.; •snobo, wf.; (cord, line, band) •rigilo, wf.; (strap) raips, sm.; "shoe string/strap" skauda-raips, sm.
strip (v.) (VARIOUS: unclothe, skin, scrape off, plunder) •straupjan; (UNDRESS) and-wasjan, wv. 1; (DISPOIL/ROB) bi-raubon, wv. 2. (acc. of victim; thing stolen not attested but ?gen. as in OHG), wilwan, sv. III.
stripe (hit, plague) slahs, sm. (i-stem).
strive (STRUGGLE, MAKE EFFORT) us-daudjan, wv. 1.; (STRIVE AFTER, WORK TO ACHIEVE) bi-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; (PERSEVERE) us-aiwjan, wv. 1.; (TRY, SEEK) sokjan, wv. 1.; (REACH OUT, strive) sik uf-thanjan, wv. 1.; (FIGHT, struggle) weihan, sv. I.; (fight) haifstjan, wv. 1.; (DISPUTE with people) and-sakan, sv. VI.; (dispute, compete) and-rinnan, sv. III.
stroke (n.) (a blow, hit) slahs, sm. (i-stem); (pen-stroke) writs, striks, sm. (i-stem).
stroke (v.) (rub) bnauan, sv. VII.; (rub, make pen-stroke) *streikan, sv. I.
stroll hwarbon, wv. 2.
strong (strong, sound, healthy) swinths; (strong) #starks, #mals, #ramms; (great, extreme) abrs; "to make strong" in-swinthjan, wv. 1.; "to be/make oneself strong" in-swinthjan sik, wv. 1.
strong-box arka, sf.
stronger swinthoza.
strongly (very, extremely) abraba
struggle (v.) (strive, make effort) us-daudjan, wv. 1.; (struggle to achieve) bi-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; "to struggle/suffer/endure together" mith-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; "struggle to the finish, persevere" us-aiwjan, wv. 1.; (reach out, strive) uf-thanjan sik, wv. 1.; "struggle through" thairh-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; (fight) weihan, sv. I., haifstjan, wv. 1.; (dispute with people) and-sakan, sv. VI.; (dispute, compete) and-rinnan, sv. III.
strum (thrum, strum, drum) •thrimman, sv. III.
stub (v.) ga-stagqjan, wv. 1. - "so you won't stub your foot on a single stone" ei hwan ni gastagqjais bi staina fotu theinana.
stubborn (deaf, numb, insensitive, stubborn) daufs (gen. daubis).
stubbornness (stubbornness against listening, deafness to idea/entreaties) daubitha, sf., daubei, wf.
student (disciple) siponeis, sm.; "to be a disciple/student" siponjan, wv. 1.
stumbling block bi-stugq, sn.
stun (shock, amaze) us-gaisjan; "to be stunned/amazed" bi-abrjan, wv. 1., af-slauthnan, us-geisnan, wv. 4. - "at" ana +dat.
stunned (amazed) us-films; "to be amazed" (amazed, shaken) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., us-geisnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1.
stupid dwals, un-wits; "stupid talk" dwala-waurdei, wf.
stupid, to be dwalmon, wf. II.
stupidity dwalitha, sf., un-frodei, wf.; (ignorance) un-witi, sn.
sturdiness (strength) swinthei, wf.; (firmness, steadfastness) tulgitha, sf.; (security, safety, firmness) thwastitha, sf.
sturdy tulgus.
stuttering (adj.) stamms.
style (manner, way of doing) haidus, sm., •weisa, sf.; (custom, practice, normal way of doing) sidus, sm., bi-uhti, sn.; "style of behaviour" us-met, sn.; (shape, physical proportions) laudi, sf.; (appearance) hiwi, sn., farw, ?sn.; (likeness) ga-leiki, sn.
subdue (tame) ga-tamjan, wv. 1.; (subjugate) uf-hnaiwjan, wv. 1.; (calm) *ana-qaljan, wv. 1.; (calm, assage) •linthjan, wv. 1.
subject "be subject to, obey" uf-hausjan, wv. 1. +dat.
subjugate uf-hnaiwjan, wv. 1.; "he subjugated them all under himself" ufhnaiwida uf ina tho alla; "he subjugated/set [them] under his feet" ufhnaiwida uf fotuns imma.
submerge uf-sagqjan, wv. 1.
submission ga-kunds, ga-kunths, sf.
submit ga-kunnan sik, pp. - ga-kann, ga-kunnum, ga-kuntha; "to" faura +dat.; (heed, obey) uf-hausjan, wv. 1. +dat.
subordination ga-kunds, ga-kunths, sf.
subsequent iftuma, w.adj.; "subsequent to" afar +acc.
subsequently afar that-ei.
subversion (n.) (overthrow) us-walteins, sf.
succeed (thrive) theihan, sv. I.; (achieve) •laiston, wv. 2.; (reach, attain, arrive at) ga-tilon, wv. 2.; (succeed in a fight, triumph) ga-jiukan, wv. 3.; (finish, perform, perfect, lead/drive up/out) us-tiuhan, sv. II.
success (victory) sigis, sn.; (deed, result) taui, sn.
successful (victorious) hrotheigs.
such swa-leiks; (as/so great) swa-lauths (gen. swa-laudis); "such suffering as never was since the beginning of creation" aglo swaleika swe ni was swaleika fram anastodeinai gaskaftais.
suck up to samjan, wv. 1.
suckle daddjan, wv. 1.
suddenly anaks; (quickly, suddenly) sprauto; (immediately) suns.
Sueves/Suebi •Swebos, pl.
suffer (physically or mentally) winnan, ga-winnan, sv. III.; "I suffer for you" winna faur izwis; (suffer, endure, bear) ga-beidan, sv. I., thulan, ga-thulan, us-thulan, wv. 3.; "to suffer fools gladly" azetaba usthulan thans unwitans; (toil) arbaidjan, wv. 1.; "suffer/endure/struggle together" mith-arbaidjan, wv. 1.; (suffer want/lack of, abstain from) ga-tharban, wv. 3. +gen.; "suffer from lust, burn up inside with passion" in-tundnan, wv. IV.; "suffer pangs of childbirth" fitan, sv. V.; "suffering from a speech impediment" stamms.
suffering wunns, sf.; (patience, endurance, agony) thulains, sf.; (anguish, distress) aggwitha, aglitha, sf., aglo, wf.
suffice ga-nohjan, wv. 1.; ga-nauhan, pp. - ga-nah, ga-nauhum, ga-nauhta.
sufficiency ga-nauha, wm.
sufficient ga-nohs, bi-nauhts; "be sufficient, suffice" ga-nohjan, wv. 1.; ga-nauhan, pp. - ga-nah, ga-nauhum, ga-nauhta; "be sufficient in, abound in" ga-nohnan, wv. 4.
suffocate (trans.) af-hwapjan, wv. 1.; (intr.) af-hwapnan, wv. 4.
suggest (argue) in-sakan, sv. VI.; "they made no fresh suggestions to me" ana-in-sokun mis ni waiht.
suicide "commit suicide" sis silbin us-qiman, sv. IV.
suit (be suitable for) ga-timan, sv. IV. +dat.
suitable fargrs, tils, ga-tils, ga-dofs (i-stem, gen. ga-dobis).
suitability wairthida, sf.
suitably ga-temiba, ga-tilaba.
sullen (sullen, sad) gaurs.
sully bi-sauljan, wv. 1.; (sully oneself, become sullied) bi-saulnan, wv. 4.
sulphur swibls, sm.
summer asans, sf.
summerhouse (bower/arbour, hut, booth, shade, covered walkway) •laubjo, wf. (cf. MnE lobby, NHG Laube, It loggia, Late L laubia/lobium).
summit (hilltop) auhumisto, wn.; (tip) *peika, sf.; (mountain) fairguni, sf., *bairgs, sm.; "the highest height" hauhisti, sn.; (gable, or pinnacle of building) gibla, wm.
summon at-wopjan, wv. 1.; (call together) ga-haitan, sv. VII, ga-lathon, wv. 2.
summons (invitation) lathons, sf.
sump (pool, pond) swumfsl, swumsl, sn.; (marsh, lake) saiws, sm. (i-stem); (mire, muck) *sauljo, wf.
sun sauil, sn., sunno, wf. & wn.
Sunday afar-sabbatus dags (gen. this dagis afar-sabbate), •fraujins-dags, sm. (cf. South NHG dialect 'Frontag'), fruma sabbato, indec. (But note that the latter is also, and probably more correctly, used of the day BEFORE the Sabbath).
sunrise (sunrise, the east, outflow/toilet/sewer) ur-runs, sm. (i-stem, gen. ur-runsis); (dawn) uwhto, wf.; (morning) maurgins, sm.; "at sunrise" at urrinnandin sunnin.
sunset sagqs, sm.
super ufar, ufar mikil.
superanuated fairnitha, sf.
superficially (by outer appearances) bi siunai.
superfluity ufarassus, sm., ufar-fullei, wf.
superfluity ufjo, wf.
superfluous (needless) un-nutis.
superintendent faura-gagga, faura-gaggja, wm.
superior (better) batiza, iusiza; (better, more important) wulthriza; (senior) *siniza; "be superior" mais wulthriza wisan, irreg.; (rate as better than) rahnjan faura +dat.
superscribe ufar-meljan, wv. 1.
superscription ufar-meli, sn.
supervise (oversee, be present) faura-standan, sv. VI.
supervisor faur-stasseis, sm.
supper nahta-mats, sm. (i-stem).
supple (tender, gentle) thlaqus.
supplication aihtrons, sf.
supply (n.) "supplies, aid, support" and-stald, sn.; "supplies, needs, living expenses" anda-wizns, sf.; (sustenance) waila-wizns, sf.; "food, nourishment" fodeins, us-fodeins, sf.
supply (v.) (provide) and-staldan, sv. VII. +acc. "with" +dat.; und-redan, sv. VII. +acc. for thing supplied; •warnjan, wv. 1.
support (n.) (prop, support) #stutja, sf.; (pillar) sauls, sf.; (crutch) •krukja, sf.; (aid) and-stald, sn. - "the support/help of the spirit" andstald ahmins.
support (v.) #stutjan, wv. 1.; (make/hold fast) ga-fastan, wv. 3.; (hold/lift up, carry) uf-haban, wv. 3.; (help) hilpan, sv. III. +gen., nithan sv. V. +acc.; (help, protect) hleibjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (support, accomplish) •frumjan, wv. 1.
suppose (imagine) ahjan, wv. 1.; (expect, think) ga-wenjan, wv. 1. - "him, I suppose" thana gawenja; (believe) munan, pp. - man, munum, munda;"supposing [he meant] physical birth from the womb" tho leikeinon us wambai munands gabaurth.
supposedly *ana-mindiba.
supposition ana-minds, sf.
supposition ana-minds, sf.
supreme auhumists, auhmists, frumists, maists; (most senior, eldest, an elder) sinista; "supreme asembly, Sanhedrin" ga-faurds, sf.
sure (adj.) *wiss; (firm, solid, good) *theihts; (firm, secure, safe) *thwasts; "to be sure, probably/perhaps" aufto; "know for sure" triggwaba witan, pp. - wait, witum, wissa; "to be sure, indeed, to wit" raihtis, (however, indeed, admittedly) swe-thauh.
surely (with certainty) triggwaba; (actually, indeed, to be sure) raihtis; (rhetorical question) "surely...?" thau niu...?; "surely...not?" ibai [thau]... (Introduces negative rhetorical question, direct or indirect); "surely one can't go back in the womb?" ibai mag in wamba aftra galeithan?; "but surely the Messiah won't come from Galilee, will he?" ibai thau us Galeilaia Xristus qimith?
sureness (sense of) stoma, wm.; (certainty, truth) astaths, sf.
surety (pledge, bond, credit agreement) wadi, sn.
surfeit ufarassus, sm., ufar-fullei, wf.; "cause to increase to a surfeit" ufarassjan, wv. 1.
surfeit ufjo, wf.
surmise (n.) ana-minds, sf.
surmise (v.) (imagine) ahjan, wv. 1.; (expect) ga-wenjan, wv. 1.; (believe) munan, pp. - man, munum, munda.
surname (v.) (give a surname) ga-satjan namo, wv. 1.
surpass (outdo, excel, exceed) ufar-theihan, sv. I.; (be superior) ufar-wisan, irreg.; (grow up higher than something else) ufar-steigan, sv. I. (not recorded with object).
surpass ufar-teihan, sv. I.
surplus ufarassus, sm., ufar-fullei, wf.; "cause to increase to a surplus" ufarassjan, wv. 1.
surprise (n.) (shock) us-filmei, wf.; (wonder) *silda-leikeins, sf.
surprise (v.) (startle, shock, disturb) us-gaisjan, us-agjan, wv. 1.; (take by surprise, ambush) bi-qiman, sv. IV.; "to be surprised" (marvel) silda-leikjan, wv. 1.; (be astonished) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1., us-geisnan, wv. 4. - "at" ana +dat.; "it's hardly surprising if..." nist silda-leik, nist mikil jabai...
surprised us-films; "to be surprised" (marvel) silda-leikjan, wv. 1.; (be surprised, stunned, astonished, shaken) af-slauthnan, wv. 4., us-geisnan, wv. 4., bi-abrjan, wv. 1.
surrender (to hand over, turn in, give someone up) af-giban, sv. V. (But note the idiom: "depart" af-giban sik).
surrepticiously thiubjo.
surround bi-satjan, wv. 1., bi-hwairban, bi-rinnan, sv. III., bi-standan, sv. VI.; (be around/nearby) bi-sitan, sv. V.; (wrap up, envelope) bi-waibjan, wv. 1.; (surround with trenches/ramparts) bi-graban, sv. VI.
surrounding (adj.) bi-sunjane, bi-sitands; (surrounding countryside) thata bi-sunjane land.
surveillance (observation, close watch) witains, sf.; (scouting visit, spying mission) niuhseins, sf.
survive "one survives, is saved, escapes destruction" ainamma bairgada (impersonal passive of bairgan, sv. III. +dat., cf. ON e-m er borgit).
suspect (v.) (imagine, assume) ahjan, wv. 1.
suspend (repeal, abolish) blauthjan, wv. 1.; (bring to a stop) •stadjan, wv. 1.; (hamper, delay, hold up) latjan, ga-latjan, ana-latjan, wv. 1.; (hang) hahan, sv. VII.
suspicion (doubt) tweifls, sm., tweifleins, sf.; (surmise) ana-minds, sf.
suspicious (doubting, reluctant) *tuz-wers; (giving cause for doubt/suspicion) *tweifls; "be suspicious, doubtful, reluctant" tuz-werjan, wv. 1.; "cause suspicion/doubt" tweifljan, wv. 1.
sustain (keep up [a practise], stick to) haftjan, wv. 1. +dat.; (bear, endure, cope with) fra-bairan, sv. IV.; "persevere, sustain effort to the end of task" us-aiwjan, wv. 1.
sustenance waila-wizns, sf.; (necessities, supplies, living expenses) anda-wizns, sf.
swaddle bi-windan, sv. III.
swallow up fra-slindan, sv. III.
swamp (n.) (marsh, lake) saiws, sm. (i-stem); (mire, muck) *sauljo, wf.; (mud) fani, sn.; (water-meadow, island) #auja, sf.
swamp (v.) (engulf, make sink) sagqjan, uf-sagqjan, wv. 1.
swan #swans, sm.
swap (v.) (change, alter, transform) in-maidjan, wv. 1.
swathe bi-windan, sv. III.
sway (INTR.) (sway, swing) *swiggwan, sv. III.; (TRANS.) (shake, sway) af-swaggwjan, wv. 1.
swear swaran, sv. VI.; "by" +dat.; "to" withra +acc.
swearing (rude words) aglaiti-waurdei, wf.
Sweaves (Suebi) #Swebos, pl.
Swedes #Sweos, pl.
sweep (v.) *baugjan, wv. 1., *sweipan, sv. I.; "sweep out" us-baugjan, wv. 1.
sweet wotheis; (gentle, mild) •lintheis; "sweet spices" (as perfume) aromata.
sweetheart *hultha, wm., *hultho, wf.
swell uf-swalljan, wv. 1., *swillan, sv. III., •bilgan, sv. III.
swelling (n.) (lump) %kusma, sm.; (act/process of swelling up, becoming swollen with pride) uf-swalleins, sf.
swift (ADJ.) (speedy) •adrs, •snills, *sniumeis; (quick, ready) #arws; (ADV.) (quickly) sniumundo; (promptly, soon) sprauto; (quick as a flash, suddenly) anaks; (soon, immediately) suns.
swifter sniumundos.
swiftly (fast) sniumundo; (soon) sprauto; "more swiftly" sniumindos.
swig (v.) •supan, sv. II.
swim *swimman, sv. III.
swine swein, sn.
swing (v.) (TRANS.) •brugdjan, wv. 1.; (INTR.) (sway, swing) *swiggwan, sv. III.
swinish *sweins.
swirl (v.) (TRANS. toss, whirl round) us-walugjan, wv. 1.
swish (v.) *swogan, *hruskan, wv. 3.
sword hairus, sm.; (long-sword) *mekeis, sm. (acc. meki occurs); (edge, blade) #agja, sf.; (short sword, cleaver, machete, single-edged sword) #sahs, sm. (gen. #sahsis), #skrama, sf.; (Roman long-sword, spatha) #spada, sf.
swordsman #spadiggs, sm.
symbolise bandwjan, wv. 1.
sympathise (feel pity) in-feinan, wv. 4.
sympathy (pity) bleithei, wf.; ga-bleitheins, sf.
synagogue synogoge, f.; (assembly) ga-qumths, ga-mainths, sf.
Syrian Saur, sm. (i-stem); Saurini, sf.
Syria Saurja, sf.