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Gothic Links


Texts * Dictionaries * Historical Sources * Articles * Miscellaneous



The Wulfila Project (searchable Gothic corpus, based on W Streitberg's edition of the Gothic Bible; includes Skeireins, Calendar & Deeds; also Streitberg's 'Gotisches Elementarbuch')

The Skeireins Project & Gotica Minora (texts of the Skeireins + multiple translations, and some more obscure Gothic fragments) ; mirrored at ; and

The Titus Project (Click on "text database" in right window for large collection of ancient texts and corpora, including the Gothic Bible)

Codex Argenteus Online (Uppsala University Library, a freely available digital version of the 1927 facsimile edition, black & white)

Codex Argenteus, a digital reconstruction (in colour)

Gots'ka Mova ("The Gothic Language", by V.V. Evchenko; Gothic texts with Ukrainian apparatus)

Gabelentz & Loebe: Ulfilas (texts + commentary & grammar, in Latin + Latin-Gothic and Greek-Gothic dictionaries) (1) Vol. 1 on Google Books ; (2) as Patrologia Latina, Vol. 18, at Wikisource

Die Gotische Bibel (Streitberg's edition)

Pages scanned from Massmann's edition of The Skeireins

De conviviis barbaris (fragment of Vandal language preserved in a Latin epigram)

Friedrich Ludwig Stamm: Ulfila, oder die uns erhaltene Denkmäler der gothischen Sprache. Text, Grammatik und Wörterbuch

Parallel Greek New Testament

Bible Pages by Wieland Willker

The Bible in the Original Languages


Dictionaries & Word-Lists

Gerhard Koebler (Gothic and other dictionaries, including Old Norse, Old Saxon, Old English, Old High German, Old Frisian, etc.) (the Gothic Dictionary is also replicated here at the following address: . Also in searchable form as "Gothic Etymological Database" here

Wilhelm Streitberg: Gotisch-Greichisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch

Lorenz Diefenbach: Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der gotischen Sprache:,M1

Sean Crist's The Germanic Lexicon Project: (Heyne's dictionary (Gothic-German), Balg's 'Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Language', Wright's 'Grammar of the Gothic Language' & Braune's 'Gotische Grammatik' + grammars and dictionaries for Old Icelandic, Old English, and many more...)

Heyne's Gothic Dictionary (German)

Patrologia Latina, Vol. 18: Ulfilas (Gabelentz & Loebe: texts + commentary & grammar, in Latin + Latin-Gothic and Greek-Gothic dictionaries)

Gothic-German glossary (from Lehrbuch der Gotischen Sprache, Johannes Friedrich)

Gothic Names (Tim O'Neill: list of name elements, meanings and Old English equivalents)

German-Gothic Dictionary

Dizionario essenziale Italiano-Gotico (Italian-Gothic)

Gotische Woordenschat (Dutch catalogue of the most frequent Gothic wordforms)

Short Etymological Dictionaries of Gothic, Crimean Gothic, Burgindian--and many more (Heinrich Tischner)

Vollständiges Krimgotisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Complete Etymological Dictionary of Crimean Gothic, Heinrich Tischner. Explains "ita", the number one, as a Finno-Ugric loan, but could this not just be the neuter pronoun of Biblical Gothic?)

Busbecq's Crimean Gothic Word-List

English-Gothic Dictionary

So Gutisko Razda (Gothic-English wordlist based on Wright's glossary, with added neologisms, identified as such + English-Gothic Neologisms Dictionary + more)


Historical Sources

Auxentius on Wulfila, original Latin: English translation:

Prologue to the Codex Brixianus (written in ungrammatical Latin thought to betray the influence of Gothic): ; and here is a translation into English:

Leo Wiener: Commentary to the Germanic laws & Medieval Documents, 1915 (see Introduction page 2 for criticism of the idea that Wulfila translated the bible + a discussion of evidence for the late survival of Gothic, including the Vienna-Salzburg Codex, Walafrid Strabo & the Synod of Leon)

Jordanes (Latin)

Jordanes: The Getica (trans.Mierow) ; ;

Jordanes: The Getica (Latin + trans.Yeat)

Procopius: History of the Wars, Books III and IV, "The Vandalic War" (trans. Dewing)

Visigoth Laws (English, trans. SP Scott)


Articles, Essays & Academic Papers

Abraham, Werner "Negation in the diachrony of Germanic & Jespersen's Cycle"

Abraham, Werner "Null subjects: from Gothic, Old High German and Middle High German to Modern German: From pro-drop to semi-pro-drop"

Czarnecki, Thomas: "Gotisches im Wortschatz des Polischen"

Davis, Graeme: "Codex Argenteus: Lingua gotorum aut lingua gotica" (Journal of Language & Literature, 1(3), 2002. Selective in its evidence and logically dodgy, although it contains some fair generalisations about the difficulties with the biblical texts as a source of information about the language of the Goths.)

Denton, Jeannette Marshall "Reconstructing the articulation of Early Germanic *r"

Thórhallur Eythórsson & Jóhanna Barðdal "Oblique subjects: A common Germanic inheritance"

Fuss, Eric: "On the Historical Core of V2 in English" (Gothic & Old English syntax. This paper avoids the flaws shown by the German dissertation of the same author below and is well worth reading, both for the information about Gothic word order, and as an introduction to the methodology for making such deductions. See Streitberg's "Gotische Syntax" § 310 for more detail on word order in negative clauses.)

Fuss, Eric "V2 in early Germanic" (Although the points made in Section 2 are sound, note that the supposed examples of OV word order aren't good evidence, since the 2.b matches the Greek, and 2.a. differs arbitrarily and exceptionally from the order of known Greek versions, leaving open the possibility of non-syntactic motivation, such as a Greek variant, or some accident in the history of the text. Also, "dauþja" should read daupja "I baptise you with water", rather than "I kill you with water", hence the enduring popularity of John's teaching.)

Fuss, Eric: "Zur Diachronie von Verbzweit
Die Entwicklung von Verbstellungsvarianten im Deutschen und Englischen
" (The discussion of Gothic is flawed by use of examples that match Greek word order; no Greek text is not quoted for comparison, so readers must look each up for themselves. There may be some truth in the conclusions--though see Streitberg's "Gotische Syntax" § 310 for subtleties--but most of the examples presented here are no good as evidence. Regarding Fuss's example (2)b., Mk 6:25 varies in Greek manuscripts. Some Greek versions do have the pronoun before the verb. Fuss, or his source, omits the words ana mesa. In (1)a., Got. izwis is mistranslated with German "dich", rather than "euch". And "fraþjandas" should read fraþjandans. Regarding dauþja, see comments on previous link.)

Ivanov, Vyacheslav V "Indo-European Syntactic Rules & Gothic Morphology"

Kiparsky, Paul "Analogy as optimization: "Exceptions" to Sievers'
Law in Gothic

Kortlandt, Frederik: "The Origins of the Goths" (linguistic evidence relating to Gothic migration) 198e.pdf

Landau, David: "The study of old texts with the aid of digital technology: the Gothic manuscripts"

Los, Bettelou: "The Diachrony of Complex Predicates: Subproject 3: comparative postdoctoral project integrating the OiO projects with a study of SCV's in Gothic, Old High German and Old Saxon" (project description, ongoing) projects/phonologyMorphology/predicates/subproject3.htm

Marchand, James: "Bishop Wulfila and the Codex Argenteus"

McFadden, T "On the pronominal inflection of the Germanic strong adjective"

Minger, David L: "An Analysis of Grammatical Relations and Case Marking in Icelandic" (see p. 90)

Ringer, Don: "A sociolinguistically informed solution to and old historical problem: the Gothic genitive plural"

Stiles, Patrick V. "Gothic nominative singular broþar 'brother' and the reflexes of Indo-European long vowels in the final syllables of Germanic pollysyllables"

Suzuki, Seiichi: "The decline of the foot as a supersyllabic mora-counting unit in early Germanic"

"Sopravivenze della lingua longobarda nel pistoiese e nell' alto reno" (Germanic influence on Italian vocabulary; Longobard & Gothic loanwords in Italian dialects; also texts of Paulus Diaconus's Historia Longobardorum & the Getica of Jordanes)

Thuleen, Nancy: (essays on German language and literature, including three on Gothic)
Gothic Nominal Declension (cowritten with Mike Lind)
Gothic Take-Home Essays: Diphthongs, Grimm's Law, Syntax, and Devoicing
Gothic Final Essaychen: Quality of Non-Codex Source Materials

Vogel, Ralf "Free Relative Constructions in OT Syntax" (rules governing case of "free relative" pronouns)

Weingaertner, Wilhelm "Die Aussprache des Gotischen zur Zeit Ulfilas" (1858)

Various Abstracts:

Miscellaneous Gothic Links

Links & Bibliography (University of Graz)

Gothic Online (introductory course by Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum)

What Every Medievalist Should Know: WEMSK32 Gothic (bibliography)

The Yahoo Gothic-l List

Gothic-l List Archives

Comparative Table of Runes + Gothic Alphabet

Vasiliev, AA, The Goths in the Crimea (extracts)

Friedrich Ludwig Stamm: Vorschule zum Ulfila, oder Grammatik der gothischen Sprache zur Selbstbelehrung (mit Beispielen, Lesestücken und Vollständigem Wörterbuch):

The Gothic Reconstruction Project (Matthew Carver (new site): modern translations into Gothic, and original modern writing in Gothic)

The Gotish Tongue Website (Matthew Carver (old site): poems, riddles, Tolkien's "Bagme Bloma")

The 'Forest People': The Goths in Transylvania from "History of Transylvania" (general ed. Béla Köpeczi) ; Die „Waldmenschen“. Die Goten in Siebenbürgen (271–380) from "Kurze Geschichte Siebenbürgens" (general ed. Béla Köpeczi)

Maenchen-Helfen "The World of the Huns", Ch. IX Language, 4. Germanized and Germanic Names

James Marchand: "Introduction to Gothic" (Not quite what it says on the tin; this is a light-hearted imaginary look at Gothic through the eyes of the first scholar to study the Codex Argenteus)

The Gothic Heathen Homepage (Albareiks: history, religion, modern poems in Gothic)

The Burgundians (well illustrated Czech article on the Burgundians, including a brief section on the Burgundian language)

Goddelau tombstone, a memorial inscription from Germany possibly containing Burgundian names

Gothic Font (Wulfila's alphabet for Macintosh and Windows)

Gothic Font (Unicode)

Crimean Gothic (Busbecq's wordlist & speculations on Crimean Gothic)

Database of the Gothic Language (Manuscripts, digitising the Codex Argenteus)

Reimar's Gothic Links (in German)

Gothic Book List

Gothic Links

Results for "Gothic" on MavicaNET Multilingual Search Catalog

Die Westgoten

Spain, Vandals, Suevi and Visigoths,%20SUEVI,%20VISIGOTHS.htm

Reconstructing the Gothic Calendar (a speculative essay) http://egd/calendar.htm


Germanic Links

Candon McLean: Germanic Languages & Germanic Studies: including Proto-Germanic Grammar, PIE to Germanic Phonology, Wright's OHG Primer, OHG texts, Grimms' Fairy Tales, Old English Vocabulary, etc. + Celtic Languages & Texts

Fordsmender's Dictionary of Proto-Germanic Roots

Proto-Germanic noun & verb paradigms

Heinrich Meidinger: Vergleichendes etymologisches Wörterbuch der der gotisch-teutonischen Mundarten:

More links: Scandinavian, Gothic, English (also Old English), Dutch, Frisian, German dialects

Elizabeth J Pyatt's links page

Gleaner's Ancient Language Links

Nomen et Gens (database of names in early Germanic languages)

Online Etymological Dictionary

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

Etymological Databases (Sergei Starostin & others)

Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (Leiden University), includes Pokorny's dictionary + etymological dictionaries/databases for individual IE languages, Greek, Friesian, Baltic, Slavonic, Luvian, etc.:

Pokorny's Indo-European Dictionary (in part)

Sanskrit site + Pokorny index

Pokorny's Indo-European Dictionary (in full!)

Part I: (*abh- to *dens-)
Part II: (*deph- to *gou??-/gu- 'hand')
Part III: *gou??-/gu- 'call, cry' to *k^e(i)-)
Part IV: (*k^eko- to *pid-)
Part V: (*pik(h)o- to *su?elplo-s)
Part VI: (*su?em- to *u?d-, plus a few additional lemmas)

Indo-European Links

Sean Crist's Indo-European Language Resources / The Germanic Lexicon Project: As well as the Gothic books mentioned above, this has the Anglo-Saxon dictionaries of Bosworth & Toller, and of JR Clark Hall, and the Icelandic dictionaries of Cleasby & Vigfusson, and Zoega, together with works on Old Saxon, Old High German, Old Frisian, etc.

Theudiskon Project: discussion relating to reconstructing early Germanic languages